Factoring Resonance and Ballistics into Stud Welding Applications

As with any manufacturing operation used to build assemblies that will face daily functioning stress, the long-term effects of resonance and ballistics on stud welded connections must be taken into account. Stud welding is a highly versatile and widely used operation for a range of industries. Not only is it key in standard shipbuilding and the construction of most large-scale structures, it’s also relied upon for food-grade welding and electrical enclosures.


Those working with stud welding operations can count on Northland Fastening Systems for all their stud welding supplies. We provide stud welding tools for rent or purchase, studs in a comprehensive range of dimensions with custom sizing available, stud welding accessories, and the expertise of our own stud welding technicians.


When taking into account the effects that resonance and ballistics have on stud welding applications, how those effects manifest and to what degree they will impact a secure connection point depends on the industry and how stud welding was utilized. The following industries will see effects of resonance and ballistics on stud welding in various different ways.


Automotive: Stud welding is used in the fabrication of multiple automotive parts and in the full assembly of those parts. Cars, trucks, and other vehicles all face different sources of resonance and ballistics. This includes the basic resonance of road friction, operational harmonics of the engine and assemblies, braking, shifting gears, and the general vehicle operations. Other sources of resonance include weather and road conditions. Ballistic impacts on a vehicle can come from an accident and objects flying from other vehicles or kicking up from the road.


Structures: Stud welding is a critical tool for the composite construction used in many different structures, from bridges to multi-story buildings. These structures face significant resonance from weather impacts that can range from standard calm weather to severe storms. In addition, bridges are under constant resonance from traffic and the ballistics of flying objects. Other large structures built with stud welding that undergo weather-related resonance are water towers, cell towers, windmills, and more.


Ships: Shipbuilding was the original fabrication industry to utilize stud welding as an essential manufacturing operation. Today, stud welding is still a primary tool in the shipbuilding process for a wide variety of types of ships and boats. From small motor boats to cargo freighters, every water vessel faces different types of resonance. All undergo resonance from the water friction and currents, as well as ballistics from objects underwater. Large ships also face significant resonance from engines, passenger motion, and the shifting of cargo. In fact, some shipwrecks, like the wreck of the Edmond Fitzgerald, have been attributed to resonance and shifting cargo causing serious imbalances in the ship and the security of the welding.


To learn more about the effects of resonance and ballistics on stud welding strength and the supplies we provide, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Effects of Weather on Stud Welding

If you’re using stud welding as one of your key production operations, you’re one of thousands of manufacturers with a powerful tool that is both efficient and cost effective. Stud welding is a highly utilized fastening system that developed out of its use in shipbuilding to be part of fabrication settings in many industries, from food grade to the construction of bridges and other large-scale structures. At Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), you can find everything you need for successful stud welding processes, including tools for rent or purchase, studs in a comprehensive range of dimensions, accessories, and our own technicians’ expertise. Whether you’re working with drawn arc, capacitor discharge, or short cycle stud welding, we have the supplies that will help you get the job done.

While many operators are able to work in indoors or in otherwise enclosed conditions, making the questions of weather and other elements irrelevant, many other stud welders work at outdoor sites with exposure to wind, rain, and temperature fluctuations. These worksite elements are factors that must be taken into consideration before attempting to use stud welding as an effective fastening system. Specifically, moisture and temperature are the elements that most directly affect the quality of a weld, no matter what metals or welding operations are being used.

Moisture: The stud welding process is most directly affected by moisture. Rain, snow, and even humidity can, at the least, damage the quality of a connection point, and at the most, compromise worker safety. If the worksite is exposed to heavy precipitation of any kind without cover, workers should never attempt to weld. With very light precipitation or some cover, welding technicians can perform successful welds safely, but even slight moisture can change the chemical makeup of the weld. The relative moisture and dew point must be measured and compared to the requirement of the specific metal being welded together. Metals like aluminum need very dry conditions for successful welds, and all surfaces must be properly cleaned and otherwise prepped for a weld. Both relative moisture and dew points can change with temperature variations in the worksite.

Temperature: Because temperature changes can impact the moisture and dew point, it’s important to monitor the air, the electrode, and the metal temperatures during the stud welding process. In addition to affecting the moisture, certain temperatures are too low or too high to allow for a successful connection point. Generally speaking, the temperature of the weld surface should not be lower than 0ºF to perform a successful weld.

No matter what the moisture or temperature of the worksite and the weld surface is when in a suitable range, the surface should always be properly prepped and the welding tool should be correctly calibrated. All of these factors will determine the quality of the weld and the standards of worker safety.

To learn more about stud welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Fastening Systems for Types of Electrical Enclosures

Stud welding is one of the most commonly used operations for manufacturing a broad range of electrical equipment, including the highly critical enclosures that delicate electronics need if they will be placed in a setting with harsh conditions. Because stud welding provides a strong connection with clean welds that don’t leave marks on the opposite side of the weld, it’s an ideal process for fabricating electrical enclosures that will hold up to a broad variety of conditions.


Electrical enclosures need to protect the equipment contained within from wind, rain, snow, ice, dust, UV light, and even seismic activity. Stud welding is the tool needed to build enclosures that will be reliable against the elements in the long-term. With Northland Fastening Systems, you can get all the supplies you need to use stud welding as one of your primary fastening systems.


While the purpose and general design of different electrical enclosures doesn’t vary greatly between boxes, there are key differences that make specific enclosures more suited to one environment over another. For many enclosures, NEMA ratings (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) will determine what environment it’s best suited for. NEMA ratings range from 1 to 13, with NEMA 1 being the least hardy electrical enclosure (commonly used indoors) and NEMA 13 enclosures capable of holding up to industrial grade contaminants.


Some examples of NEMA ratings include:


  • NEMA 3 enclosures are the most weather resistant, capable of withstanding wind, rain, and more. NEMA 3X enclosures are even resistant to salt water corrosion and are used in outdoor settings near shorelines and on ships.
  • NEMA 4 enclosures are fully water tight and can be used in areas with large quantities of water. 4X enclosures have added corrosion resistance as well as being watertight.
  • NEMA 6 enclosures can be fully submerged in water or oil. 6P can be fully submerged for longer periods of time.
  • NEMA 7 and 8 enclosures are used in hazardous conditions that will be exposed to gases including propane, ethylene, methane, butane, hydrogen, acetylene, and benzene.


While NEMA ratings cover a broad range of factors that enclosures built with stud weld fastening systems will face, the issue of seismic activity is not addressed. Instead, seismic rated enclosures have their own requirements. To meet seismic grade enclosure requirements, stud welding is a necessary operation to use. Seismic rated enclosures need heavy duty doors, full welding, and mounting hardware. The need for seismic rated enclosures depends on the zone where an enclosure will be installed. Of Zones 1-4, seismic enclosures are necessary in Zones 3 and 4 where seismic activity is heightened.


Whether you need to manufacture NEMA rated or seismic grade enclosures, NFS has the supplies you need including stud welding tools for rent or purchase, welding studs in a complete range of dimensions, and the expertise of our own welding technicians. Contact us at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today to get started with stud welding fastening systems.