Specifics of Sanitary Food Grade Welding

Welding of all kinds plays a large role in commercial-grade food equipment. From the shelving units used to store fresh, frozen, and dry foods to stoves and ovens used daily, welding operations are used in the manufacturing process. Stud welding, in particular, is a commonly used manufacturing technique for many types of equipment used in restaurants, hospitals, hotels, and other commercial kitchens as well as in food production and packaging industries. Even some equipment in home kitchens is made with certain components of stud welding. Northland Fastening Systems provides everything you might need for all applications of food grade welding, from studs of all dimensions to tools for rent and purchase in addition to the expert services of our own technicians.


Equipment used in the food industry must meet U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards for sanitation, including the very specific requirements of the FDA’s Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). This means, every step of the fabrication process must guarantee that end results meet those standards. When it comes to stud welding, regulations are in place for food grade welding processes.


The foundational requirements of food grade welding include:


  1. Precise Finish: A smooth finish with the elimination of burrs and sharp particles of metal of all kinds must be accomplished. Even microscopic burrs or sharps can compromise a food grade piece of equipment. Rough surfaces should also be smoothed and finished in a way that removes any spaces for food particles to get caught and build bacteria colonies.
  2. Sealed and Bolted: The full framework of a piece of equipment should be sealed at connection points. Simply bolted connection points can have opportunities for increased vulnerability to corrosion or storage of bacteria. Components that can be detached for cleaning must also be built in a way that reattaches with a full seal.
  3. Correct Design: The equipment should be designed in a way that only uses internal angles or corners. External angles create spaces in which bacteria can thrive, which compromises any food grade equipment.
  4. Surface Working: Surfaces should be worked in a way that doesn’t overstress the materials. Overworking can leave any layers protecting against oxidation susceptible to being quickly stripped away.
  5. Compatible Weld: The stud and the surface material must be compatible. Any incompatible welds are more vulnerable to corroding and contamination food or cracking under thermal stress.


If you are fabricating food grade equipment of any kind, it’s critical to consider these requirements and any other standards outlined in the FSMA before beginning your project. To learn more about food grade welding, and stud welding overall, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online to get started on your stud welding project.

Determining Weld Strength for Drawn Arc Stud Welding

Many forms of welding have been used for centuries to build strong, long-lasting parts and countless buildings and other structures. Included in these forms of welding are the various types of stud welding, all of which provide one of the strongest connection points of any weld type. In fact, both capacitor discharge (CD) and drawn arc stud welding form a bond that is stronger than either the weld stud or the base material.


Because of the strength of these connections, stud welding is an operation that is key to many manufacturing industries. No matter what industry you work in, Northland Fastening Systems has the tools, supplies, and services you need for both drawn arc stud welding and CD stud welding.


We are committed to providing a comprehensive range of welding studs in multiple standard dimensions as well as custom made-to-order studs. In addition, we offer welding tools for rent and purchase and our own expert services.


When it comes to drawn arc stud welding in particular, determining the required stud specifications is critical for a strong, lasting weld that can hold the weight or other stresses it will bear. Typically, drawn arc stud weld points are used in heavier construction projects and require precise performance in the field. This performance depends on the strength of the weld point, which in turn depends on weld fusion and weld penetration.


Weld Fusion

Simply put, weld fusion is the point where the metal of the stud connects to the metal of the surface. This fusion is a chemical connection generated by the heat of the welding arc rendering both stud and surface metal and joining those points with an atomic bonding process. In order to have a strong, reliable weld point, the spread of the fusion must be as far up the stud, as deep into the surface, and wide enough in diameter to create the necessary connection.


Generating the correct level of fusion without using unneeded energy or compromising the stud requires a highly specific combination of time, power, and force. For the majority of drawn arc stud welding operations, these combinations are predetermined by industry engineers specializing in stud welding physics. These specifications can be applied to different welding projects within a varying range that gives the welder the information needed to apply the correct level of weld fusion and create a strong weld connection.


NFS welding technicians can help you determine the specifications you need to apply precise, high-quality drawn arc stud welding operations to your project. To learn more about weld connection points, our stud welding services, and the welding studs we provide, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today or request a quote online. Learn more about welding fusion here.

The Role of Molecular Fusion for Stud Weld Fastening Systems

Stud welding as a fastening system is a highly valuable manufacturing operation that can be applied to a wide range of industrial applications. From food-grade welding to structural steel fabrication, stud welding plays a critical role in the connection of various metals. At Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), we are dedicated to operating as a one-stop-shop for all your stud welding needs, including stud welding tools for rent or purchase, studs of varying dimensions and materials, stud welding accessories, and our own expert services.


Because stud welding can be applied to such a wide range of industrial projects, big and small, we believe it’s necessary to provide an equally wide range of stud welding supplies as well as our technical support services. NFS is a comprehensive provider of the tools you need to complete a project using studs as industrial fastening systems.


Today, welding as a fastening system is much different than the forge welding of days past. Instead of simply using the heat of a forge, welding can be applied in concentrated electrical arcs in addition to many other types of weld operations such as induction, laser, and chemical operations.


The majority of stud welding is done using a drawn arc electrical current. The filler tip of a stud and the metal of the base surface are heated using the current, and they become molten. Then the arc is shut off, and the stud is moved onto the base. As the molten metals combine and cool, molecular fusion occurs.


Molecular Fusion

To create an effective, true weld connection, molecular fusion is necessary. Drawn arc stud and CD stud welding use heat, closeness, and cleanliness of metal atoms to create a bond at the molecular level. The process of heating the stud and base surface with an electrical arc current doesn’t just melt one metal onto the other. It effectively joins one metal molecule to another and fully fuses two atomic structures into one. In this way, stud welding creates a connection point stronger than both the stud or the base material alone.


The role of molecular fusion is key to the use of stud welding as a fastening system for construction, ship building, food equipment welding, automotive fabrication, sheet metal manufacturing, electrical enclosures, bridge building, and much more. Without the strong connection point that molecular fusion provides, the components and assemblies built in many industries wouldn’t be the reliable structures and tools they are today.


To learn more about stud welding fastening systems, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

Breaking Down the Technical Numbers of Welding Studs

At Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), we’re dedicated to providing a comprehensive supply of welding studs, stud welding tools, and our own expertise and services. We understand that stud welding is used for an incredibly wide range of fabrication purposes, and each application requires a specific set of tools and studs to accurately complete the job. Because of this, we offer studs meeting all your needs for dimension, material, length, threading, and more. NFS also provides custom stud specifications and works directly with our customers to supply the studs they need. When it comes to welding studs and welding tools, NFS is your one-stop-shop for the services you need.


The range of different welding studs is broad and it can be difficult to choose the exact specifications you need. To make things more complicated, the technical numbers of welding studs are hard to unpack. Those who have worked in the stud welding industry have a better understanding of stud part numbers, but for others less familiar, a breakdown of this information can be useful.


The part number of any kind of stud follows the same general sequence that will give you the key to the majority of studs you may encounter. Using a sizing of this drawn arc welding stud as an example, you can see how the NFS version of that sequence operates:


The part number is: ARC MS FT 006 07


ARC: This indicates that the stud is designed for use in drawn arc stud welding

MS: This tells you the part is made from mild steel

FT: This indicates the stud is fully-threaded.

006: This refers to the threading, which in this case is ¼-20

07: This indicates the stud length, which in this case is 1⅛”


Understanding the system of part numbers is important, but understanding the sizing numbers themselves is also key.


Thread Sizes: The numerical sizing of threads is based on a diameter and per-inch system. In the case of the listed drawn arc welding stud, the ¼-20 means there are 20 threads per inch on a ¼” nominal diameter. The distance between each thread is the reciprocal of the thread-per-inch, so for this stud, the distance between threads is 1/20 of an inch.


Lengths: Thread lengths are a simpler system. The stud length is 1⅛ inches. This length is listed as before it is welded. Because the stud diameter in this case is less than ½”, the length will be about ⅛” shorter after the weld. For studs with diameter of ⅝” to ⅞” the post-weld length will be about 3/16” shorter, and 1” diameters and above will have a post-weld length that is about ¼” shorter.


The flexibility of sizing for welding studs is a broad one, but NFS can help you determine exactly what you need. To learn more about welding stud sizes and our services, contact us at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

Drawn Arc Stud Welding Highlights from Start to Finish

Drawn arc welding is a complex process made simple with today’s technology. Though welding has been around for centuries, beginning with the oldest forge welding to today’s capacitor discharge welding, it hadn’t begun development into the highly advanced process contemporary welders use until the late 1970s. Thanks to the advancement of welding techniques since then, we are able to utilize both drawn arc and capacitor discharge processes to perform stud welding operations. If you are working on a CD or drawn arc stud welding project, Northland Fastening Systems has everything you need from tools for rent and sale, studs of all shapes and sizes, stud welding accessories, and our own welding services.


When it comes to the traditional format of drawn arc stud welding, there are several stages of the procedure to take into consideration. First, the welding operation itself, which follows a simple step-by-step process:


  1. The welding gun is set onto the base material at the desired weld point and the operator compresses the main spring partially.
  2. The trigger is then compressed, and the stud is lifted magnetically from the base material to create an arc.
  3. The arc melts the stud tip and the base material while a ceramic ferrule shield concentrates the heat, containing it to one weld point.
  4. The stud is then compressed into the base material, melding the two molten metal components.
  5. The welding gun releases the stud, the ferrule is broken, and the welding process is complete.


A drawn arc stud welding process creates a bond that is stronger than the stud itself. As welding processes go, drawn arc welding is one of the most effective, fastest, and strongest operations for stud welding manufacturing. For even more effective, accurate drawn arc stud welding, templating is a highly useful procedure.


Templates improve the accuracy of a welding operation that uses a ceramic ferrule to contain the heat during the arc. Steel plates hold the ferrule in place, while spacers allow the gasses from the weld to escape through gaps underneath the template plates. Additional template options may allow tube templates with ventilation holes to hold the ferrule, or brushing templating can be applied.


Brushing templates allow for angled alignment of the stud in addition to an exact location. These templates use a tube adapter to sheath the stud and tilt it to the desired angle. The tube adapter is connected on one end to a foot component that can be attached to the welding gun and on the other to the ferrule. Template brushing components made from masonite or ebonite are stationed between the template and the tube adaptor. These components protect your template’s longevity and improve the accuracy of the weld. Virtually all drawn arc welding operations benefit from the use of a template.


To learn more about drawn arc stud welding and our additional services for stud welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today.


The Flexibility and Quality of Stud Welding

Centuries ago, forge welding was developed and used for many manufacturing applications. In the late 19th Century, arc welding was developed as electricity became standard throughout manufacturing industries. All welding formats quickly advanced during the world wars as demand for fast, cost-effective attachment methods grew immensely. After WWII, many additional welding techniques were developed, including capacitor discharge (CD) welding.

Since the expansion beyond forge welding in the late 1800s, stud welding has remained a constant in the welding world, developing alongside other welding applications. Historically, stud welding was used primarily for shipbuilding, but because of its versatility and adaptability, it is used in a wide range of global industries today.


Northland Fastening Systems is committed to providing every aspect of services and tools needed to open the doors to everything stud welding can do with its flexibility and quality results. From tools and accessories to our own stud welding services, NFS is your one-stop-shop for all the supplies you need to complete any project, big or small.


Access to a wide range of stud welding supplies is critical because of the versatility of its manufacturing applications. In fact, stud welding is one of the most flexible welding operations used in any given industry, and it provides a clean, quality weld point that is even stronger than the materials welded together. This flexibility is due to several factors, including:


  • Adaptability: Stud welding units can be adjusted to weld studs made from different materials to a wide range of surface metals. Studs themselves come in a range of dimensions including diameter, length, and thread variations. The shape of the stud is adaptable, and several additional options are available for stud properties. Overall stud welding can be used in almost any operation where studded surfaces or other forms of stud connection are necessary.
  • High-speed: Stud welding cuts the time of other stud connection methods in half, making it one of the fastest manufacturing operations available. Handheld stud welders can perform up to 20 welds per minute when used manually, and some automated systems can perform upwards of 60 welds per minute.
  • Maneuverability: Stud welding guns are small, moveable tools that can be used in cramped or difficult-to-reach spaces. Additionally, welders only need access to one side of the weld point, making surface welding faster and more easily maneuvered.
  • Portability: Stud welding units are lightweight in comparison to other welding equipment. Units can be moved with ease between worksites, and many units are designed specifically for constant movement on the job.
  • Weld results: Stud welding is one of the cleanest welding operations available to any industry. Stud welders create a clean, one-sided weld point without holes, residue, or marking. This clean weld improves the strength and extends the lifetime of the weld point and the product overall.


Contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online to get your next project started right!


Technical Specifications and the Engineering of Stud Welding

As one of the most versatile and widely used fastening systems, stud welding is an invaluable operation for a broad range of manufacturing industries. Because of its wide range of uses, stud welding has to meet a large number of engineering specifications, such as sizing, strength, materials, format, and process specifications. For any stud-welding project specifications, Northland Fastening Systems provides services and offers equipment, studs, accessories, and everything you need to get the job done.


Stud welding can be performed with drawn arc welding or CD welding units that vary in sizes, portability, and capability. Though both drawn arc and CD welding are rapid operations that provide a weld connection stronger than the stud and surface material combined, they differ in several ways when it comes to the engineering specifications.


Drawn Arc Stud Welding

  1. Materials used:
    1. Low-carbon steel with tensile strength of 60,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 50,000 psi minimum, and a 20% minimum elongation in 2 inches. When annealed, the tensile strength becomes 50,000 psi, yield becomes 35,000 psi, and elongation becomes 25%.
    2. Stainless steel with tensile strength of 85,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 40,000 psi minimum, and a 45% minimum elongation in 2 inches.
  2. Stud fastening torques:
    1. For low-carbon steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 17.8 and 2831 lbs per inch.
    2. For stainless steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 19.8 and 3440 lbs per inch.


CD Stud Welding

CD welding studs use a variety of materials from steel to brass. Each stud material provides a successful weld that is dependent on the base material. Some are more suited to a base material than others. For example:

  1. Mild steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to other mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steels and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  2. Stainless steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  3. Aluminum:
    1. Excellent when welded to die-cast zinc alloys and common aluminum alloys
    2. Cannot be welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, or electrolytic copper
  4. Brass:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to galvanized sheet materials and common aluminum alloys


Learn more about engineering specifications in the stud welding industry with Northland Fastening Systems. To get started with us today, call (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Benefits of Copper Plated Studs for CD Stud Welding

Copper is a unique metal in many ways, from its rich coloring and conductivity to its resistance to corrosion, despite a quick oxidizing of the outer layer. Exposed to tarnishing conditions, the warm orange-brown of copper eventually becomes the green patina many sculptors and builders desire. In addition to its range of cosmetic uses, copper is also highly useful for many industrial and otherwise practical applications.

Because of its electrical conductivity, copper wiring and other components are frequently used in electronic applications, but it’s also used extensively for specific manufacturing purposes. For example, Northland Fastening Systems uses copper plating for many studs used in high-quality CD stud welding and offers copper plated studs for sale ranging in length, diameter, and threading.

CD stud welding is a highly effective manufacturing process for clean, strong, rapidly-made connection points between the stud and the base surface. Not only is CD stud welding well-suited to fabricating food service equipment, electrical enclosures, construction welding, and much more, it’s also widespread in shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, and countless other types of large-scale construction. Copper plated studs are frequently beneficial for use in these stud welding operations for several reasons, including:

  • copper’s conductivity provides a clean, highly rapid weld as a plated surface
  • its overall resistance to corrosion in comparison with non-plated steel studs
  • its improved electrical conduction for specific applications
  • its ability to slow or prevent alloyed elements from migrating
  • in some applications, copper plating improves solderability
  • it extends the dimensional tolerance of the stud
  • copper plating can improve the service life of any given weld and stud itself


Copper plating for our CD studs is standard, including studs made from aluminum, mild steel, and brass. Both flanged and non-flanged studs benefit from copper plating in dimensions ranging from:

  • 2-56 to ⅜-16 stud diameter
  • .125 to .437 flange diameter
  • .250 to .500 minimum stud length
  • ⅝ to 2-½ full stud length
  • 4-40 to ⅜ – 16 threading


CD stud welding is an excellent operation for such a wide range of applications that it’s become a constant for many contract manufacturers and construction crews as well as a useful tool for stud welding specialists. Copper plating opens an even wider range for stud welding, and at NFS you get the best of both worlds. In addition to CD stud welding tools for rent and purchase, we offer a comprehensive variety of studs for CD welding, drawn arc welding studs, drawn arc tools, and automation equipment.


To learn more about CD stud welding and copper plated studs, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today or request a quote online.

The Importance of the Stud Welding Process in the U.S. Navy from WWII to Today

For years, the stud welding process has been used for fabrication of all kinds of large-scale construction projects, including a high prevalence and cruciality to the shipbuilding industry. Despite the importance and well-documented use of stud welding in the maritime industry today, it wasn’t always such a highly prominent fabrication process. In fact, it wasn’t until the U.S .Navy’s use of stud welding during World War II (WWII) that the world began to recognize the stud welding process as a superior manufacturing operation for stronger, faster, lighter, and longer-lasting ships. Whether you are a player in the maritime industry or are working on a smaller scale project, Northland Fastening Systems has everything you need to complete the stud welding process from start to finish, including stud welders, studs, accessories, and our own stud welding services.


Stud welding was one of the most important manufacturing processes for shipbuilding and the U.S. Navy in WWII. Although stud welding was commonly used in shipbuilding since the early 1900s, the results were still creating warships, freighters, and other large vessels that were heavy, slow, and required an excess of materials. By the 1930s, the United States realized it needed a strong marine and naval force to protect the country.


In the face of the war and a lackluster maritime presence, the U.S. Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act in 1936, which helped both U.S. merchant ships and the U.S. Navy revolutionize their maritime presence, almost completely thanks to the act’s requirement of improved ship construction. To meet this requirement, a stud welding technique that the American Welding Society and the New York Navy Yard developed in 1930 was vital.


This stud welding technique provided a way to connect wood directly to steel. The new ships built in accordance with the Merchant Maritime Act relied heavily on this technique and other stud welding processes to build ships unparalleled by any other navy at the time. In many ways, stud welding helped the United States and its allies win WWII.


Since the use of stud welding processes in shipbuilding during WWII, naval and merchant vessels have benefited from huge advancements in welding units, welding guns, studs, and other stud welding techniques. Even today, with the range of futuristic manufacturing capabilities, stud welding is a staple for maritime industries.


To learn more about the use of stud welding processes in shipbuilding and many other industries, or to get the supplies you need, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

Old and New Uses of Stud Welding Equipment in Shipbuilding

The use of stud welding for shipbuilding and other maritime construction is as old as the welding process itself. As far back as the turn of the 19th century, simple forms of stud welding were developed for various shipbuilding purposes.


By the end of WWI, stud welding began to play a more significant role for industrial shipbuilding of trade and military vessels. Many wars and technological advancements later, stud welding remains a primary manufacturing operation for shipbuilding large and small. Northland Fastening Systems provides a wide range of reliable, high-quality stud welding equipment suited for any type of shipbuilding projects and other construction welding.


From portable automated welding units to highly specified welding studs, NFS has everything you might need for even the largest shipbuilding project. The history of shipbuilding was revolutionized by the development of stud welding procedures suited to the fabrication of seaworthy vessels and other marine components. Today, both drawn arc and CD stud welding are used in a wide range of shipbuilding operations. Some of the most prevalent of these operations include:


  • plating hulls and protecting or streamlining other exteriors
  • building decking, bulkheads, and other interior structures
  • fittings including portholes, hatches, or storage units
  • pipe and cable hangers and protection units
  • manhole fittings, winches, ladders, and other functional accessory components
  • propellers, rudders, steering shafts, masts, and other locomotive components
  • connecting lining and wedging joints, anchoring equipment, shell plating, and ceramic backing
  • performing repairs at sea


In a nutshell, a broad majority of shipbuilding operations rely on stud welding. Technicians working on shipbuilding projects can find all the stud welding equipment they need with Northland Fastening Systems. Our stud welding technicians provide CD and drawn arc welding services and guidance, and we offer stud welding equipment including stud welding units and welding guns for sale or rent, welding studs for CD and drawn arc welding in a variety of metals, sizes, and other specification, and any other stud welding accessories you may need.


Stud welding operations used in shipbuilding and maritime manufacturing contributes to the construction of small boats for personal use, small to large boats for police, forestry, and coast guard purposes, long-haul freighters and milk truck delivery boats, submarine research vessels, pleasure cruise ships, armed military vessels, aircraft carriers, and many other types of sea and freshwater ships.


To learn more about the use of stud welding for shipbuilding and other marine construction purposes, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770, or to find out more about the stud welding equipment we offer, contact request a quote online.