Thru-Decking Procedures for Structural Steel Welding

Drawn arc stud welding operations are used extensively in the construction industry. Not only do drawn arc studs function as fastening systems for sheet metal fabrication, construction equipment manufacturing, and structural steel manufacturing, they are also used to build large-scale infrastructure with composite building. With drawn arc shear connectors, bar anchors, and other studs, manufacturers can build composite materials. Stud welding offers a rapid, clean operation that results in a connection stronger than the stud or the welding surface. At Northland Fastening Systems, we provide a complete selection of drawn arc welding tools, studs, and accessories. We also provide repairs and service for most welding tool models, and our expert welding technicians can give guidance and advice on any project. If you’re working with drawn arc structural steel welding, NFS is your one-stop-shop for supplies.

Structural Steel Welding

One of the most important uses of drawn arc operations for structural steel welding is the thru-deck installation process. Weld thru-decking (studs abbreviated WTD) fastens decking material to steel beams. Building with decking welded to beams is a common construction practice, used to fabricate components in many types of buildings, from homes to skyscrapers.

In order to accurately attach studs through decking to the beam underneath, specific welding procedures should be followed.

Surface Preparation

Both the surface of your decking material and the steel beams should be properly prepared for a weld. This means removing any paint, rust, mill scale, dirt, moisture, and other contaminants. Galvanized surfaces on beams should have the galvanization removed at the weld point. Moisture from rain or humidity should be dried with a heat gun at the weld point. Additionally, if you are welding in cold weather, the weld point should be warmed to the touch but not overheated.


Finally, the decking and beam should be properly grounded to prevent loss of welding current. Using C-clamps or welding grounds attached to a beam flange where the surface has been ground to bare metal will prevent poor weld connections due to inadequate current.

Weld Specifications

Thru-deck welding requires currents typically between 1,500 to 1,900 amps. Your welding unit manual will specify the exact power source requirements determined by stud dimensions, decking thickness, and materials. Keep in mind that extensions of cables and changes to wire size can impact the current and compromise a weld. If you must run a long cable, you may need to run parallel cables to generate enough power for the weld site.


Thru-deck welding requires a special ceramic ferrule with wider gaps between teeth. These gaps allow for a hotter weld that can successfully fuse the stud through the decking to the steel beam. Most thru-decking welds will take between 0.8 to 1.6 seconds to fuse, and studs will plunge approximately 1/4″ to 1/2” depending on their length and decking thickness.

If you would like more information about drawn arc structural steel welding with thru-decking or need to order supplies, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Building Stainless Steel Furniture with Food Grade Welding

One of the reasons why stud welding is such a prolific manufacturing operation is its versatility. Stud welding can be used to form powerful fastening systems for a variety of materials, including composite construction for bridges and other important infrastructure. Composite construction combines concrete and steel into a strong material that can resist enormous amounts of shear force, weight, and tension. Without the shear connectors and deformed bar anchors used in composite construction, we wouldn’t have the roads, bridges, multi-story buildings, and other large-scale structures that are key components of our modern world. The use of stud welding in composite construction is just the tip of the iceberg. Stud fastening systems are utilized across industries for anything from sheet metal construction to sanitary fabrication with food grade welding. No matter what industry you work in, you can find all you need for tools, supplies, and support with Northland Fastening Systems. NFS provides quality stud welding tools for rent or purchase, drawn arc, CD, and short cycle weld studs in a complete range of dimensions, custom stud options, welding accessories, and a repair program.

Food grade Welding

Stainless steel is a primary material used in food grade welding for many reasons, but, as a unique set of metal alloys, it can also be used for many other purposes when it comes to building furniture. Using stainless steel to construct various types of furniture with stud welding has many benefits. From aesthetics to practical purposes, manufacturers, artists, designers, and furniture companies build with stainless steel and stud welding to take advantage of their properties.


For food service equipment, commercial and residential kitchen appliances, and other instances where good sanitation and hygiene are critical, stainless steel is a remarkable material. Because stainless steel has antiseptic properties and is highly cleanable, it pairs well with the smooth, crevice-free results that stud welding can achieve to build sanitary furniture and food grade equipment.


Stainless steel also has corrosion resistant properties. The chromium content in stainless-steel alloys creates a passive film on the material’s surface. The presence of oxygen allows this film to self-heal when abrasions, cuts, and other damage occur. This means furniture made with stainless steel and stud welding operations can withstand corrosive environments and last longer than other metals.


With its sanitary and anti-rust properties, stainless steel is already a practical material for building furniture of all kinds. Its durability, strength, and flexibility only add to its value as a furniture building material. Compared to many other materials used to build furniture, stainless steel is one of the strongest and most practical.


For design purposes, stainless steel offers a great range of finishes, from the lustrous sheen of a polished, bare surface to the vibrancy and color ranges that annealing, plating, and other finishing treatments can yield.

If you are working with food grade welding or other operations for furniture and equipment building with stud fastening systems, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

Building Class A Crafts to Small Research Vessels and Other Small Boats with Stud Fastening Systems

Stud welding is a widespread manufacturing operation today thanks to the powerful, fast, versatile, and clean results it provides. The first uses of stud applications with drawn arc welding began in the shipbuilding industry. During WWI, the rapidly increasing demand for military and seaworthy ships gave rise to the development of better stud welding technology. Using stud weld operations to perform strong, water-tight connections, the US Navy and industrial marine fabricators could meet the need for war-worthy vessels. After WWI, stud welding continued to be used in building vessels for military, commercial, industrial, and consumer use. During WWII, stud welding was again relied upon for shipbuilding, but also expanded as a manufacturing operation to the fabrication of other vehicles, containers, electrical systems, and more. With advancements in electrical technology, material design and processing, and automated systems since the end of WWII, stud weld fastening systems can be used to install connection points as thin as a 10-gauge pin to as thick as a 1” diameter shear connector stud. Whether you’re working small or large, you can find all the supplies you need with Northland Fastening Systems. Not only do we offer tools, studs, and accessories; we also provide repairs and the expert advice of our own welding technicians.

Fastening Systems

Although stud fastening systems have spread to so many industries today, those operations are still used frequently in the shipbuilding industry to manufacture a broad range of vessels. In addition to freighters, large military ships, and commercial liners, stud welding is also used in the production of small boats.

The US Office of Marine & Aviation Operations classifies small boats into five categories by length, weight, and usage. Those categories include:

Class A:

Boats that are shorter than 16 feet long overall fall into the Class A category. This generally includes small motorboats, daysailers and other small sailboats, dinghies, transport boats, and small fishing vessels.

Class I:

Vessels between 16 and 26 feet long are considered Class I boats. This can include boats with small sleeping cockpits like short haul fishers, camping cruisers, small racers, park ranger vessels, and small speedboats.

Class II:

Similar to Class I, Class II vessels include slightly longer haul fishers, longer distance racing sailboats, multi-bed cockpit sailers, and other fast motorboats. Class II vessels are between 26 to 40 feet long, so small cruise ships, yachts, and science vessels can be rated within that range.

Class III:

Class III vessels are between 40 and 65 feet long, generally including larger fishing operations, tugboats, small industrial crafts, ferries and other transport, grander yachts, police and fire department cruisers, and historical ships.

Small Research Vessels:

These vessels may be larger than 65 feet in length, but no heavier than 300 gross tons. SRV are used in short-term research projects or in close vicinity to labs and testing centers.

In today’s world, many small vessels and ships are manufactured with stud fastening systems. To learn more, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online today.

Commercial and Industrial Projects Built with Drawn Arc Welding

Northland Fastening Systems supplies a complete range of products for stud welding manufacturers working at all sizes for drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), and short cycle operations. Not only do we offer tools for rent or purchase, studs in all dimensions, and welding accessories; we also provide repair services for most models and the advice of our expert technicians. NFS was founded in 1987 and started providing stud welding supplies to the industrial and commercial construction industries. While the majority of the market for our supplies in the 1980s to the early 2000s was dedicated to the construction industry, today it’s a little different. After the major construction work in Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Rochester that built up the cities into the 2000s was completed, the industrial market had room to grow. Today, about 80% of our supply chain goes to the industrial market, while the remaining 20% goes to commercial construction. For both the industrial industry and the commercial construction market, there are many applications of stud welding. In particular, drawn arc welding for shear connectors, bar anchors, threaded studs, and many other formats are utilized heavily throughout industrial and building construction.

Drawn Arc Welding

Some industrial and commercial projects made with drawn arc welding include the following.

Industrial Projects

  • Ladders and railings: For many purposes, secure ladders and railings made with structural steel are critical for industrial settings. Scaffolding, catwalks, safety bars, and egress ladders all serve significant roles in manufacturing. In addition to ladders and railings, structural steel welding is also used for beams of all shapes and sizes.
  • Chutes: Whether they are made for ducting, ventilation, turbines, or material transfer, chutes are often built with stud welding operations. Stud welding chutes are also critical in hydroelectric energy production.
  • Pipe shoes: Our plumbing, irrigation, oil, and power infrastructure is made possible with hundreds of underground and aboveground pipelines. These pipes need to be installed on top of thousands of pipe shoes that run along the length of the systems. Pipe shoes are built with stud welding fastening systems.
  • Modular fabrication: Many buildings and other structures are made with modular fabrications. Beam structures built into sectional modules can be shipped and fitted together more easily than large single pieces. These beams are fastened with stud welding operations.

Commercial Projects

  • Schools and universities: Campus buildings and grade schools have many components built with stud welding to ensure the safety of students and meet the requirements of an educational space.
  • Churches: Many churches are incorporating structural steel design elements, including steeples, clock towers, fencing, and more.
  • Municipal buildings: Stud welding is also key in building safety systems into municipal buildings, including police and fire stations, court houses, and prisons.
  • Minneapolis Skyway System: The Minneapolis Skyway is the largest enclosed second-level bridge in the world. It’s made up of 9.5 miles of pathways installed with welding studs.

To learn more about our supplies and drawn arc welding operations, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online.

Stud Weld Fastening Systems Tips and Tricks

When performed with accurate calibration on a correctly prepared surface, stud welding is one of the strongest fastening systems available to manufacturers. A finished stud weld will be stronger than the stud and the surface material put together, which means the connection will never fail before the other components. This makes it a safer and more reliable system for fasteners, composite building, and more. If you’re working with drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), or short cycle stud welding operations, Northland Fastening Systems is your one-stop-shop for supplies, repair services, and advice. We offer tools for rent or purchase, welding studs in a complete range of dimensions, custom stud sizing and material options, welding accessories, a repair and maintenance service program, and the guidance of our own knowledgeable welding technicians.

 Tips and Advice for Proper Stud Welding

Stud welding can be a rapid, easy operation, but there are many steps that need to be taken to prepare a weld surface, tool, and stud. NFS technicians can always offer in-depth advice to customers about their tools, materials, stud sizes, and more, but there are many tips and tricks that can answer frequently asked questions and generally get you started. These following tips for fastening systems are standards almost all welders should follow for quality results:

  • Ensure you have adequate power for your tool
  • Power sources should be consistent to prevent heat fluctuations
  • Ground connections should be attached to a clean section of the welding surface
  • Cables should be well-maintained and long enough to reach weld sites safely, but still as short as possible to prevent tripping and other incidents
  • Contaminants like rust, paint, moisture, dirt, and air gaps will affect weld quality
  • Successful welds require an exact relationship between lift, plunge, time, and current
  • Ceramic ferrules used in drawn arc stud welding must be dry
  • Water/ice should be removed from the top flanges of studs before welding
  • Temperatures of welding materials should be above 0º F
  • Studs and welding surfaces should be rust-free
  • Ensure you are holding the welding gun at the correct angle while firmly maintaining the tip against the weld surface
  • When you pull the gun trigger, keep your hands steady and still during the weld
  • Always learn your tool and refer to its instruction manual before any welding project for recommended current calibration and welding times
  • Follow recommended maintenance procedures for your welding guns, cables, and other tool components
  • Perform bend tests on several of your first welds to ensure your connection points are properly fusing

For Advice and Supplies, Give Us a Call Today!

There are many other aspects of a welding scenario, steps that should be taken to prepare a weld, and other factors of your weld site you should take into account before launching into a project, but these are some general tips to adhere to. To learn more about stud weld fastening systems and our supplies, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770. Request a quote online to get started with us today.

Food Grade Welding Eliminates Harborage

Not only is stud welding a key operation for the construction industry, including composite construction with shear connectors in bridges, roads, and other infrastructure, it’s also utilized on smaller manufacturing scales for equipment like electrical enclosures, food grade instruments, and commercial kitchen appliances. In the food industry, stud welding serves an important purpose when it comes to manufacturing factory processing systems and equipment. Because stud welding creates clean results and strong welds without marking through on the reverse surface, it can be used to build smooth surfaces with full wash-down capabilities. If you’re working with food grade welding for the production of food industry or commercial food equipment, Northland Fastening Systems has the supplies you need for drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), and short cycle welding. We provide tools for rent and purchase, studs in a complete range of dimensions with custom options available, welding accessories, automation support, the advice of our own skilled technicians, and services and repairs for most models.

Food Grade Welding Makes Equipment Easier to Clean

Food grade welding with studs makes equipment easier to clean, helping commercial kitchens and food production facilities maintain sanitation practices and support good hygiene. Food products made on an industrial scale can be one of the main sources of foodborne illness epidemics. To eliminate the risk of food contamination, stud welding reduces the potential of harborage.

What is Harborage?

In the food industry, harborage occurs when particles are trapped in crevices, bends, and other hard-to-clean nooks and crannies in equipment. Not only does this introduce rotting or pathogenic food particles that can damage the integrity of other products; it can also increase the risk of rodents and insects in a facility. Stud welding reduces harborage by removing the crevices potentially left by other types of fastening systems.

Connection Points are Clean

Stud welding connection points are clean, smooth, and fully fused. Food grade stud welding processes also use antiseptic stainless-steel surfaces that resist corrosion or oxidation. With most designs, stud welding engineering can also reduce external angles and corners, eliminate risks of overstressed surfaces, and fully seal connection points from microscopic pitting.

Where Can Harborage Occur?

Harborage can occur in equipment that is not manufactured to the highest food safety standards in several areas, including control panels, equipment legs, cracks, crevices, hardware, moving parts, HVAC equipment, multiple surface types, and any wet areas. To fully remove problems with harborage in these areas, stud welding systems should be installed whenever possible.

Full Wash Down

With a tight connection point and no crevices, zero marks on the opposite side of the weld surface, low-stress surfaces, and corrosion-resistant materials that are compatible with full wash down capabilities, food grade welding can significantly reduce the risk of harborage in industrial processing and commercial kitchens.

For more information about fastening systems for food equipment and the welding supplies we provide, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online to get started with us today.

NFS Has Been a Family-Owned Supplier of Stud Fastening Systems Supplies since 1987

In 1987, Ken Gobout founded Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) after leaving a job in sales. NFS is based in Woodbury, MN, and supplies tools, studs, and welding accessories to a range of industries.​​ Since the late 1980s, the stud welding industry has changed in various ways, including the customers, facilities, equipment, and practices. The constant for Ken and his two sons, Jason and Brent, has always been the value of trustworthy business operations. Jason is now the president of the company, while Brent oversees all NFS sales. Thanks to their participation in the business over the years, Ken is now semi-retired after fully transitioning ownership to his sons. Today, NFS is known for going the extra mile for customers: providing high-quality, reliable services and having great customer service. If you are in need of fastening systems supplies, NFS is your one-stop shop for drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), and short cycle welding tools, studs, and accessories.

Welding Accessories

In addition to tools available for rent or purchase, welding studs in a complete range of standard dimensions, custom stud options available, and many welding accessories, NFS also provides tool repairs and offers customers the advice of our own welding experts. We have over 30 years of experience repairing and servicing tools of all ages. Our team has seen the advancements of stud welding technology over time and is well versed with generational variations and current models.

Our team repairs and services models from major fastening systems brands, including HBS, Tru-Weld, ProWeld, ERICO, AGM, MFI, NOVA, Cutlass, Nelson, and tension control tools.

Customer First Approach

NFS implements a customer-first approach in all our operations, sales, and quality control practices. Our business thrives today because we have grown with community-focused ideals and neighborly values. NFS customers return to us for the trusted familiarity and support they receive, whether they are looking to resupply on their “usual” studs or want detailed information on a tool rental.

Fastening Systems

Our customer base ranges from professionals working with fully automated systems to do-it-yourself (DIY) welders just getting started. No matter what level you’re working on, our staff and welding technicians are eager to provide any advice and guidance you might need. While about 80% of our business came from the construction industry when we started in 1987, today 80% of our business comes from the industrial market and 20% comes from construction. This means we work with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and other customers around the world, but we’re also here to support our local welders in Minnesota and the greater Midwest region.

Stud Welding

NFS values stud welding because it’s a highly important manufacturing operation for many industries. It provides a rapid, strong connection point with no backside marking, and it’s compatible with many different metals. Composite building with shear connectors is also critical for infrastructure like roads and bridges.

To learn more about using stud welding fastening systems and our work as a family-owned company, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770. You can also request a quote online to get started with us today.

Installing Climate Control Technology and Other Uses of Construction Welding

Stud welding is used in many aspects of the building construction processes, from structural steel fabrication and sheet metal building to the installation of insulators, HVAC systems, and other types of climate control technology. If you live in a home built later than the 1950s, it’s likely that stud welding was used in some portion of its construction. Not only is stud welding used in installing insulation, fire protection, ducting, and other climate control building materials; it’s also used to integrate sound proofing in many areas of residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. If you’re building with stud welding operations, Northland Fastening Systems has the tools and supplies you need to get the job done correctly and economically. We provide a complete range of drawn arc and CD (capacitor discharge) studs, tools for rent or purchase, welding accessories, and the advice of our expert technicians. NFS also provides quick, long-lasting repairs and services for customers working with all kinds of construction welding for stud installation.

Construction Welding

Though drawn arc stud welding and most CD construction welding operations use studs with diameters wider than 4-40 (0.112 base diameter), some CD welding applications are used to install thin pins through insulative materials. This CD pin installation technology allows technicians to quickly attach insulation in multiple construction scenarios with strong connection points.

CD Pins

Some forms of insulation that are installed with CD pins include:

  • Building insulation sheets that cover the interior of walls, flooring, and roofs to keep indoor temperatures at comfortable levels without excessive energy expenditure
  • Heat and cold insulation protectors around heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ducting
  • Insulating containers around air conditioning units
  • Industrial heat exchangers used in many manufacturing industries
  • Cooling systems for factories
  • Climate-controlled storage warehouses and refrigerated or frozen shipping containers
  • Coolrooms in industrial settings, storage, or transportation providers
  • Fireproofing for residential, commercial, and industrial buildings, including spark-proofing in electrical enclosures, heat-proof plating in machinery, and more
  • Heavy-duty heat proofing and fire protection in power plants, incinerators and industrial furnaces, forges, refineries, and industrial buildings processing chemicals and petrochemicals
  • Cabin, sound, fire, and HVAC insulation on freighters, military vessels, cruise ships, and other large ships

Sound Proofing

Sound proofing insulators are also installed with larger CD and drawn arc studs. Sound proofing is important in the entertainment industry for recording studios, live venues, and movie theaters. It’s also utilized in municipal construction for roads, bridges, building facades, plumbing, and major ductwork to control noise pollution.

Welding Studs

Whether you’re using CD pins, other CD studs, or drawn arc welding studs for construction welding, Northland Fastening Systems has the supplies you need. To learn more about our selection of stud welding tools, studs, and accessories, contact us at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online to get started with us today.

High-Integrity Thin-Gauge Connection Points with CD Stud Welding

Early electrical capacitors date back as far as the mid-1700s. Those early rudimentary electrical charge storage systems developed over the next 250 years to the capacitors we use in many applications today. There are multiple variations of capacitors and supercapacitors used across contemporary industries that are highly advanced storage and release systems. Capacitor discharge technology is also utilized in stud welding applications for versatile, strong welds with thin base material. If you’re utilizing capacitor discharge (CD) stud welding systems, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) has a comprehensive range of welding supplies, including tools for rent and purchase, studs in a range of dimensions with custom options available, welding accessories, and the technical support of our knowledgeable staff. There are many benefits that CD stud welding provides to manufacturers and technicians working with specific materials and small diameter studs.

CD Stud Welding

Not only does CD stud welding allow technicians to build with small diameter studs as, it’s also a manufacturing technique that allows work on thin-gauge welding surfaces without distortion. The ability to weld extremely small diameter studs onto thin surfaces without risking mark-through or structural distortion allows welders to install fasteners for a broad range of industries, including food-grade equipment and insulation. These processes help manufacturers build with integrity and meet specifications for unique products.

Dissimilar Metals

CD stud welding can also be used to fasten dissimilar metals like various steel grades, aluminum, copper, brass, and other alloys without compromising the strength of the weld surface or stud. This is because CD installation penetrates at shallow depths that don’t risk metallurgical issues.

With an ignition tip that is charged with the release of electrical current from a capacitor, CD tools generate a rapid weld with a clean, ideal cosmetic result. The process of CD stud welding done properly will have little-to-no burn marks, no marking on the backside of the weld surface, and a connection point even stronger than the stud itself.

Automated Production

When working with smaller diameter studs and thin welding surfaces, CD stud welding is also the most cost-effective for labor, materials, assembly, and energy in addition to being the most visually appealing. For components that can be installed in automated production lines, CD stud welding offers a rapid operation with precision on repeat.

High-Integrity Weld

CD stud welding creates such a high-integrity weld because of an exact calibration of heat and pressure. When the capacitor discharges its stored current and activates the ignition tip, the stud is heated and pressed into the weld surface at a specific pressure. The heat and pressure requirements depend on the diameter of the stud and the materials used. While contact CD stud welding is a more common process, some manufacturers will use gap welding tools. Gap welding is an effective operation when technicians who are working with aluminum and stainless steel require a completely mark-free back side.

To learn more about different CD stud welding operations, tools, and applications, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770. Or you can request a quote online to get started with us today.

Technical Details: CD Welding

The vast majority of industrial manufacturing processes are highly regulated and standardized in today’s technologically advanced world. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and many other regulators have established global guidelines that inform manufacturers, distributors, and customers of the quality of available goods and services. ISO approval registrations aren’t an industry requirement, but without a certificate appropriate to a company’s products, management systems, or practices, trusted customers and partners will be difficult to obtain. Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) follows ISO 9001 certificate regulations for the stud welding industry. As a provider of complete stud welding supplies, we understand the importance of quality parts, tools, and other products as well as standardized services. We offer stud welding supplies for drawn arc, short cycle, and CD welding, including tools for rent or purchase, a full variety of studs, and welding accessories. Our customers also benefit from tool repairs and servicing.

CD Welding

Whatever kind of welding operation you use, there are technical details and specifications that are critical to know and follow. For CD welding, in particular, technical details direct everything from the stud requirements to onsite welding conditions. Some basic CD specifications include:


CD studs come in a variety of dimensions that are generally smaller than drawn arc welding studs. CD stud welding utilizes smaller dimension studs, pins, and other fasteners for quick, clean connections that will handle lighter shear loads than drawn arc welds, but meet requirements for food grade equipment, one-sided marking, and rapid operations. Studs come threaded internally or externally, and with partial to full thread specifications. Studs can also be flanged.


CD stud welding does not require the use of ceramic ferrules, fluxes, or shielding gas. The weld is completed with an exact calibration of capacitor discharge generated heat and welding gun pressure. Studs are made from mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or brass. They can be plated with copper, nickel, zinc, or other materials for various applications. CD studs can also be annealed when required.


Because the process doesn’t need to use shielding gas or ferrules and because CD stud welding is a rapid, clean operation that results in a strong weld, it’s ideal for automation. CD studs can be loaded quickly and easily into auto feed systems and equipment controlled robotically through CNC software programs. They can also be loaded into a handheld auto feed gun.

Welding conditions:

CD stud welding requires relatively exact conditions for the successful installation of connectors. The tool, power supply, and other equipment need to be capable of welding the diameter, length, and material of your studs. The weld surface should be clean, free from lubricants or dust, and without imperfections like excessive roughness. The tip size, stud diameter, and angle of the tool must also be applied correctly for a good weld.

To learn more about the CD welding process and our selection of welding supplies, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.