Aluminum Alloys Used for CD Weld Studs

Capacitor discharge (CD) stud welding has a broad range of applications from the installation of insulation with CD pins to the construction of electrical cabinets with larger diameter CD studs. CD stud welding and other types of stud welding are valued for the powerful connections they form; the quickness of each operation; and the clean, mark-free backside of welding surfaces. With power from a standard electrical outlet, an experienced welding technician can perform up to 20 CD welds per minute. When done correctly, those welds are more aesthetically pleasing than any other fastening system, and they are often stronger and longer lasting. For any diameter, material, or other specifications you need for CD weld studs, you can find what you’re looking for at Northland Fastening Systems (NFS). We provide a complete supply of CD studs, including pins and flanged or non-flanged studs with various lengths and thread sizes. Our CD studs are available in aluminum, mild steel, stainless steel, and brass with plating and annealing options.

 CD Weld Studs

When it comes to aluminum CD weld studs, we offer several alloy specifications that provide a flexible range of properties as well as custom stud options. Our main aluminum alloy studs include: 

     1100 Series: Alloys in this series are commercially pure, containing a minimum of 99% aluminum. This makes these alloys also some of the most mechanically durable. 1100 alloys are highly conductive thermally and electrically, resistant to corrosion, and workable to form many parts. Other than aluminum, these alloys can contain 0.05-0.20% copper, 0.95% iron, 0.05% manganese, 0.95% silicon, and 0.1% zinc with additional residual materials up to 0.15%.  

     5000 Series: This series of aluminum is typically alloyed with small percentages of manganese, copper, magnesium, chromium, zinc, iron, silicon, and zirconium. Aluminum content can range from around 94% to around 99%. Many of these alloys are considered universal for a broad range of applications, but several are specific to welding.  

     6061 Material: In the 6000s series of aluminum alloys, 6061 is a precipitation-hardened material with magnesium and silicon as main alloying elements. The material has good weldability and contains about 96-98.5% aluminum with 0.80-1.2% magnesium and 0.40-0.80% silicon. The 6061 alloys have high tensile strength and mechanical properties.  

For all of our studs, including CD studs, special sizes are available by request. We have studs regularly available ¼–2½ long, and stud diameters [BL1] [JP2] [JP3] 2”-56 and ⅜-16. Flange diameters are available between 0.125 and 0.437. If you are looking for aluminum CD studs or any studs in the additional materials we offer, you can request a quote online to get started with us today.

 For any other information about our CD weld studs or other supplies, repairs, and services, contact NFS today at (651) 730-7770.


Using CD Stud Welding to Protect Electrical Equipment from Hazards

Stud welding is used in the fabrication of many fixtures used in the industrial world, including electrical enclosures. Electrical enclosures are built to protect a variety of devices, circuit boards, switches, relays, motors, and controls. Because electrical enclosures are so prevalently used throughout industries as well as for commercial, residential, and municipal purposes, they are critical structures that have to hold up against many hazardous conditions. Even enclosures that remain indoors need to withstand potential contaminants that could compromise a delicate electrical system. The majority of effective electrical enclosures are built with CD stud welding operations due to the strong, clean, and rapid connection points the process provides. If you are fabricating electrical enclosures with stud welding systems, you can find all the supplies you need at Northland Fastening Systems. We offer a comprehensive supply of stud welding tools for rent or purchase, drawn arc and CD welding studs, welding accessories, and repair services for most models.

CD Stud Welding

Electrical enclosures built with CD stud welding offer several benefits to manufacturers. CD fastening operations are cost-effective and long-lasting, and CD welding connection points can be quickly installed with no marking on the reverse side.

Because there is such a broad range of assemblies that electrical enclosures protect and the locations of enclosures vary so much, they have to be able to face the many hazards they may be exposed to. Some of those hazards include:

Hazards Include

  • Gas: Industrial worksites often have the potential for atmospheric gas exposure. Electrical enclosures on jobsites and other locations operating with chemical gases or vapors must be able to be fully sealed against those contaminants.
  • Dust: Even indoors, dust can be a problem for electronics. Simple electrical enclosures are effective inside, but enclosures that are outside permanently need to be ruggedized to protect against all dust particle sizes.
  • Moisture: In addition to dust, outdoor enclosures need protection from multiple sources of moisture, such as rain, snow, and humidity. Humidity can be a problem in any climate, even in more arid regions.
  • Flame: While electrical enclosures aren’t generally meant to survive a building fire, industrial site enclosures are more prone to being exposed to flames. Because of the greater risk of minor flame exposure on worksites, enclosures need some extreme heat resistance.
  • Temperature: Both extreme cold and heat can negatively affect electronics. To prevent damage in settings where excess heat or cold could be an issue, enclosures should have built-in insulation and seals.
  • Physical stress: Electronics are also susceptible to damage from physical stresses like vibrations, falling objects, resonance, and more. Ruggedized electrical enclosures need specialty impact protection built on the interior and exterior.


There are many types of electrical enclosures built with CD stud welding that can withstand many types of potential damage. To learn more about our supplies and services, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

High-Integrity Thin-Gauge Connection Points with CD Stud Welding

Early electrical capacitors date back as far as the mid-1700s. Those early rudimentary electrical charge storage systems developed over the next 250 years to the capacitors we use in many applications today. There are multiple variations of capacitors and supercapacitors used across contemporary industries that are highly advanced storage and release systems. Capacitor discharge technology is also utilized in stud welding applications for versatile, strong welds with thin base material. If you’re utilizing capacitor discharge (CD) stud welding systems, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) has a comprehensive range of welding supplies, including tools for rent and purchase, studs in a range of dimensions with custom options available, welding accessories, and the technical support of our knowledgeable staff. There are many benefits that CD stud welding provides to manufacturers and technicians working with specific materials and small diameter studs.

CD Stud Welding

Not only does CD stud welding allow technicians to build with small diameter studs as, it’s also a manufacturing technique that allows work on thin-gauge welding surfaces without distortion. The ability to weld extremely small diameter studs onto thin surfaces without risking mark-through or structural distortion allows welders to install fasteners for a broad range of industries, including food-grade equipment and insulation. These processes help manufacturers build with integrity and meet specifications for unique products.

Dissimilar Metals

CD stud welding can also be used to fasten dissimilar metals like various steel grades, aluminum, copper, brass, and other alloys without compromising the strength of the weld surface or stud. This is because CD installation penetrates at shallow depths that don’t risk metallurgical issues.

With an ignition tip that is charged with the release of electrical current from a capacitor, CD tools generate a rapid weld with a clean, ideal cosmetic result. The process of CD stud welding done properly will have little-to-no burn marks, no marking on the backside of the weld surface, and a connection point even stronger than the stud itself.

Automated Production

When working with smaller diameter studs and thin welding surfaces, CD stud welding is also the most cost-effective for labor, materials, assembly, and energy in addition to being the most visually appealing. For components that can be installed in automated production lines, CD stud welding offers a rapid operation with precision on repeat.

High-Integrity Weld

CD stud welding creates such a high-integrity weld because of an exact calibration of heat and pressure. When the capacitor discharges its stored current and activates the ignition tip, the stud is heated and pressed into the weld surface at a specific pressure. The heat and pressure requirements depend on the diameter of the stud and the materials used. While contact CD stud welding is a more common process, some manufacturers will use gap welding tools. Gap welding is an effective operation when technicians who are working with aluminum and stainless steel require a completely mark-free back side.

To learn more about different CD stud welding operations, tools, and applications, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770. Or you can request a quote online to get started with us today.

Technical Details: CD Welding

The vast majority of industrial manufacturing processes are highly regulated and standardized in today’s technologically advanced world. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and many other regulators have established global guidelines that inform manufacturers, distributors, and customers of the quality of available goods and services. ISO approval registrations aren’t an industry requirement, but without a certificate appropriate to a company’s products, management systems, or practices, trusted customers and partners will be difficult to obtain. Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) follows ISO 9001 certificate regulations for the stud welding industry. As a provider of complete stud welding supplies, we understand the importance of quality parts, tools, and other products as well as standardized services. We offer stud welding supplies for drawn arc, short cycle, and CD welding, including tools for rent or purchase, a full variety of studs, and welding accessories. Our customers also benefit from tool repairs and servicing.

CD Welding

Whatever kind of welding operation you use, there are technical details and specifications that are critical to know and follow. For CD welding, in particular, technical details direct everything from the stud requirements to onsite welding conditions. Some basic CD specifications include:


CD studs come in a variety of dimensions that are generally smaller than drawn arc welding studs. CD stud welding utilizes smaller dimension studs, pins, and other fasteners for quick, clean connections that will handle lighter shear loads than drawn arc welds, but meet requirements for food grade equipment, one-sided marking, and rapid operations. Studs come threaded internally or externally, and with partial to full thread specifications. Studs can also be flanged.


CD stud welding does not require the use of ceramic ferrules, fluxes, or shielding gas. The weld is completed with an exact calibration of capacitor discharge generated heat and welding gun pressure. Studs are made from mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or brass. They can be plated with copper, nickel, zinc, or other materials for various applications. CD studs can also be annealed when required.


Because the process doesn’t need to use shielding gas or ferrules and because CD stud welding is a rapid, clean operation that results in a strong weld, it’s ideal for automation. CD studs can be loaded quickly and easily into auto feed systems and equipment controlled robotically through CNC software programs. They can also be loaded into a handheld auto feed gun.

Welding conditions:

CD stud welding requires relatively exact conditions for the successful installation of connectors. The tool, power supply, and other equipment need to be capable of welding the diameter, length, and material of your studs. The weld surface should be clean, free from lubricants or dust, and without imperfections like excessive roughness. The tip size, stud diameter, and angle of the tool must also be applied correctly for a good weld.

To learn more about the CD welding process and our selection of welding supplies, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Building Electrical Enclosures with CD Stud Welding

Electrical enclosures protect delicate circuitry, wiring, and other electronics susceptible to moisture, dust, and many other contaminants. For industries where electrical enclosures need to be installed in areas that are exposed to damaging elements, stud welding is a critical operation that allows manufacturers to build clean, secure systems that eliminate the risk of many contaminants. With stud welding, fabricators can build quickly and efficiently, installing threaded studs, bar anchors, shear connectors, and many other stud formats. Stud connection points are stronger than the stud or surface material, ensuring little risk of a stress failure. If you’re using stud welding in any project, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) has the tools and supplies you need. We provide a complete selection of tools for rent or purchase, studs in various dimensions, custom stud options, and full welding accessories for drawn arc, short cycle, and CD stud welding.

CD stud welding, in particular, is an important operation for the fabrication of electrical enclosures. Because CD stud welding creates secure, powerful connections with small diameter studs, CD operations are ideal for many types of electrical enclosures. These welding operations also leave no marks on the back of a weld surface, no matter how thin the surface is. This means CD studs can be hidden in the fabrication of clean builds.

Levels of Enclosures

Electrical enclosures meet varying levels of protection, from a simple box installed indoors to rugged casings that keep out heavy contaminants. These levels of protection are based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standards.

  1.  First-level enclosures are used indoors to protect people in the vicinity from exposure to hazardous components. These enclosures are simple boxes, such as a household switch box, that encase building circuit switches and keep out a low level of dust and other solid contaminants.
  2. Second-level enclosures can be used either indoors or outdoors to provide protective cases for nearby people; and they keep out low levels of dirt, windblown solid objects, and some degree of water from rain, snow, and ice. These enclosures also protect electronics from ice formation on the exterior of the case.
  3. Third-level enclosures are typically used outdoors to protect nearby people and keep out elements of weather—such as dust, ice on the casing, and corrosion—to a greater degree than second-level boxes. They are not required to be dust-tight or have ventilation systems.
  4. Fourth-level enclosures have the same protective features as third-level casings but to a greater degree, and they are required to be dust- and water-tight. These enclosures can be used in areas where they will be exposed to full water spray for short periods of time, such as in food processing equipment that is washed down and sanitized regularly.
  5. Fifth-level enclosures are fully sealed against water, dust, and other contaminants. They protect nearby people from hazardous parts, and they generally include some form of ventilation system.

CD stud welding is often used in manufacturing all types of electrical enclosures. To learn more about our CD stud welding supplies and more, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Installing Different Types of Insulation with CD Stud Welding

From residential buildings to skyscrapers, there are varying methods used to construct the skeleton and other foundational components of different building types. Homes and other residential buildings are typically built with lumber skeletons, while skyscrapers and other multi-level commercial buildings require steel beam structures. One common fabrication operation used in virtually almost any building type is stud welding. Stud welding is a versatile construction tool that plays a role in a broad range of building processes. For example, stud welding with shear connectors can allow workers to build composite constructions with concrete and steel. Stud welding can also connect steel beams, create foundations, and much more. If you’re using stud welding in building construction, Northland Fastening Systems has the tools, studs, and accessories you need for drawn arc, short cycle, or CD stud welding.

CD Stud Welding

In any type of building construction, CD stud welding is commonly used to install different types of insulation. Insulation helps conserve energy when heating or cooling indoor spaces, protects areas where fire is a potential issue, lowers interior noise pollution, and more. The following are just a few of the many different types of insulation used today in building construction.


Thermal insulation or weatherizing insulation is the most prevalent type of insulation material used in all types of buildings. These types of insulation are almost always required in residential and commercial buildings in order for them to meet municipal and state construction standards. Industrial buildings may not require thermal insulation, but it’s often in the best interest of a company to include insulation for energy costs, climate-control, and equipment protection. Thermal insulation such as batting and blanket fiber sheets, foam, fiberglass, and more are installed with CD weld pins and other stud insulation fasteners.


For many indoor spaces, acoustic insulation reduces background noise, exterior noise pollution, and prevents sound travel between rooms. Acoustic insulation is used between apartments, offices, condominiums, and other spaces that are in multi-tenant buildings. Noise insulation is also a key component in buildings used in the entertainment industry, manufacturing industries when sonic diagnostics are necessary, and even in hospital buildings and treatment centers to protect patients. Acoustic insulation sheeting and other formats are installed with CD welding tools and studs.


Heat-resistant panels, flame retardant sheeting, and many other types of fire insulation are a necessary installment in most buildings for safety purposes. Fire insulation is used in boiler rooms, electrical hubs, roofing, and many industrial applications. Mineral wool, radiant barriers, ceramic fiber, duct wrap, thermal batting, and other kinds of soft fire insulation are installed with CD pins. Electrical enclosures and other metal sheet flame barriers and fire-resistant panels are built with stud welding as well.

If you’re installing insulation of any kind, NFS can provide the necessary drawn arc, short cycle, or CD stud welding supplies. Contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online to learn more.

Construction Welding and Shear Connector Facts

One of the main reasons why composite construction holds the strength it does for applications like road, bridge, and building fabrication is because of stud welding. Stud welding with shear connectors and bar anchors allows workers to connect concrete to steel beams and other girders. For most large-scale construction projects, composite construction is a key component of building with accurate, durable, and long-lasting designs. For any stud construction welding needs, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) has the supplies to get the job done. From studs in a complete range of dimensions and custom options available to welding tools for rent or purchase, NFS is a comprehensive resource for stud-welding supplies. In addition to a full range of tools, studs, and accessories, our welding technicians can provide tool repairs and give guidance for best practices in whatever you’re working on.

Stud Welding in Construction

Stud welding in composite construction is performed with drawn arc operations to install fasteners that form structural connections between steel beams and concrete slabs. Most applications can hold loads up to 1,000 kg/m², which is much higher than composite applications that don’t rely on stud welding.

Shear Connectors

Shear connectors are the most critical component of a composite construction when bonding concrete and steel beams. They completely impact the effectiveness, ergonomics, speed, stability, and safety of a composite construction. In hindsight of examining bridge collapses, severe road damage, and other failures, we’ve determined that the correct application or use of shear connectors often could have prevented the incident.

Construction Welding

When using shear connector studs in construction welding, drawn arc currents range from 240 to 3,000 amps and a ceramic ferrule is used to prevent issues like splatter, burring, slagging, and brittle welds. Shear studs are typically low-carbon steel, but they can be applied in stainless steel when protection from corrosion is necessary. When welded, the length of a shear connector is reduced by about 5 mm.

Stud Welding in Composite Construction

The reason why the incorporation of stud-welding techniques in composite construction is so effective is because the installed studs resist shear force. Shear force runs parallel to the cross section of a road, bridge, or other composite structure. That impact creates significant strain on inflexible construction, but longitudinal shear connectors allow the concrete and beam composite to bend and resonate with the stress, increasing durability.

Installation of Shear Connectors

The correct installation of shear connectors prevents the concrete slab from separating from the steel beam as they both bend from stress. Shear connectors should be installed on a clean deck surface free of paint, dust, oil, and water. Ceramic ferrules can be left to be covered by the concrete pour, but the pour should significantly cover the tops of the studs. Some beam areas may require additional reinforcing depending on the shallowness of the decking and the region along the composite construction.

To learn more about using shear connectors in construction welding, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770. You can also request a quote online to get started with us today.






Lightweight Applications of CD Stud Welding

There are several types of stud welding utilized in many different industries. Northland Fastening Systems offers a comprehensive supply of welding tools for rent or purchase, studs for all applications, accessories, and the expertise of our own technicians to customers worldwide. Depending on the application, one type of stud welding operation may be better suited than another. When it comes to capacitor discharge (CD) stud welding, there are hundreds of applications that make the fabrication of many products possible. CD stud welding is best suited for smaller-dimension studs and pins. The CD welding process doesn’t leave marks on the opposite side of the weld surface, so it’s ideal for clean results on thin surfaces.

CD Stud Welding

CD stud welding might be more prevalent than many people might realize. It’s used in hundreds of products and tools we use daily, from automotive applications to the installation of home insulation. Some of the lightweight applications of CD stud welding are even more common in most people’s lives. For example:


  • Cookware: Many pots and pans are assembled using stud welding operations. Various handles, lids, and specialized pots like steamers and pressure cookers are made stronger and longer-lasting with stud weld connections. In the face of heavy-duty commercial cooking, strong stud fastening systems hold up to the extreme heat and stress of an industrial kitchen.


  • Hardware: There are many different applications for the general category of hardware. From brackets, cleats, and hinges to tool handles and specialty kits, CD stud welding with pins and small-dimension studs is a highly effective fabrication method. Hardware for commercial doors also utilizes CD welding for escutcheon plates and insulators.


  • Small appliances: While various types of stud welding are used in the manufacturing of many kinds of large appliances, from home ovens and dishwashers to factory-grade food processing equipment, CD welding is also used extensively in building small countertop appliances. This includes most microwaves, deep fryers, hot plates, coffee makers, and more.


  • Jewelry: Along with soldering and other fine fabrication methods, stud welding is a useful tool for the jewelry industry and jewelry arts. High-quality jewelry is designed to last a long time with frequent use and hold up to routine cleanings. Using stud and pin welding, jewelers and artists can create strong connections between components.


  • Electrical setups: Because it provides a strong connection with no backside marking, CD welding is ideal for electrical enclosures, circuitry systems, terminals, and more. It’s also heavily used in fabricating devices like pumps, motors, and even communication equipment.

Even for small applications, CD stud welding is one of the most effective light-weight systems for rapid production with little-to-no warping. If you’re working with any type of stud welding, NFS has the supplies you need. To learn more about our supplies and services, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770. Request a quote online to get started with us today.


Setting Up CD Weld Studs and the Benefits of CD Welding

From production uses like insulation fasteners to heavy-duty composite construction, stud welding is relied on for many purposes. If you’re working with stud welding in any capacity, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) has the tools for you. We provide stud welding supplies, including tools for rent or purchase, studs in all dimensions with custom options available, and complete welding accessories. In addition to a comprehensive supply of welding equipment, NFS technicians offer expert advice on all stud welding processes, including the use and setup of CD weld studs for effective and quality results.

CD (capacitor discharge) stud welding is a manufacturing technique that’s useful for some of the smaller dimension pins and studs, like the stainless steel studs used in food grade, lightweight welding, for example. Other common applications of CD weld studs are for insulation fasteners, electrical enclosures, internal electronics, and on-board aerospace systems.

Utilizing CD stud welding operations in the appropriate application is highly beneficial for many reasons. Not only does CD welding create a powerful connection point with no mark-through on the opposite side of the weld surface, it’s a rapid process that conserves energy, improves efficiency, and produces a clean finish when done correctly.

Understanding how to set up CD weld studs for the full welding process is critical for performing an effective operation. A CD stud welding process occurs in five basic steps:

  1. Contact of stud tip to weld surface
  2. Ignition of weld tool
  3. “Placement” or pressuring of stud into surface material
  4. Fusion of stud into surface material while both metal are molten from ignition
  5. Cooling of both materials to complete the weld connection

Setup can vary depending on the type of tool you’re using, implementation of different collets, stud dimensions, weld surface material, and electrical specifications. In general, the setup process takes the following steps, and in most cases, will get you ready to weld:

  1. Set up the assembly of “B” collet and “B” stop accessories by loosening the screws at the tip of the gun shaft to allow the installation of these parts.
  2. Ensure the collet is the correct size for stud diameter; then install a correctly paired length of stop into the collet.
  3. The collet and stop should seat correctly into the gun (until it stops completely on insert).
  4. Insert the stud into the collet until it stops fully. The stud should extend past the end of the collet and be held tightly in the gun during welding.
  5. Do not let the stud tip ever come into contact with the collet when the weld is ignited.
  6. Place the leg and foot assembly into the gun to allow ⅛” of the stud protruding past the foot.
  7. Tighten set screws and ensure the area around the weld point and your welding space is clear.

To learn more about this basic process of preparing CD weld studs and other stud welding operations, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

NFS Welding Studs 101

Since 1987, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) has supplied the stud welding industry with quality tools, welding studs, accessories, and our own expert advice. Our supply of welding studs and accessories covers a comprehensive range of dimensions, materials, and additional specifications. Welders working with drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), or short cycle welding can find the welding studs they need with NFS, including any specifications from threaded studs used in an automated system to CD pins hand-installed in the field to shear connectors used in composite construction. As a specialty welding operation, manufacturers using stud welding take advantage of its speed and ability to form a connection stronger than the stud itself. When done correctly, stud welding is a highly clean and efficient operation that poses little physical danger to the welder. You can incorporate the benefits of stud welding onto your production floor with the help of NFS technicians, our tools—for rent or purchase—and our complete collection of welding studs and accessories.


The most common types of stud welding include drawn arc and CD. Studs suitable for each welding operation will vary, and depending on what your surface material, fastening system specifications, and dimension requirements are, the welding studs will vary within each category. All of the following studs are available in multiple diameters and lengths, and we offer custom stud-sizing options.


Drawn Arc Studs

Typically speaking, drawn arc welding studs are slightly more heavy-duty than CD welding studs. They fit in larger dimensions; are made from mild, low carbon, or stainless steel; and take longer to weld. NFS offers fully threaded or partially threaded arc welding studs, headed anchor welding studs for concrete connections, shear connectors for composite constructions, and deformed bar anchors for weld and bearing plates.


CD Studs and Pins 

CD stud welding is used as a rapid, lightweight, clean fastening operation for smaller studs and CD pins. We offer flanged and threaded CD studs in standard and small sizing and non-flanged and threaded studs in standard sizing. NFS CD studs are fabricated with aluminum, mild steel, stainless steel, or brass. Mild steel CD insulator pins are also available in standard sizing.



For both drawn arc and CD welding, we have a range of accessories that are necessary to make adjustments to tools, work with ferrules, and more. We offer a variety of cable connectors, ferrule plates, split feet, closed feet, chucks, spark shields, collets inserts, tube adapters, B stops, and more.


Whether you’re working with drawn arc, CD, or short cycle welding operations, our goal is to provide you with all the stud welding supplies you need to help your job go smoothly. To learn more about our available welding studs and all our other welding supplies, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770. You can also request a quote online to get started with us today.