The Role of Molecular Fusion for Stud Weld Fastening Systems

Stud welding as a fastening system is a highly valuable manufacturing operation that can be applied to a wide range of industrial applications. From food-grade welding to structural steel fabrication, stud welding plays a critical role in the connection of various metals. At Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), we are dedicated to operating as a one-stop-shop for all your stud welding needs, including stud welding tools for rent or purchase, studs of varying dimensions and materials, stud welding accessories, and our own expert services.


Because stud welding can be applied to such a wide range of industrial projects, big and small, we believe it’s necessary to provide an equally wide range of stud welding supplies as well as our technical support services. NFS is a comprehensive provider of the tools you need to complete a project using studs as industrial fastening systems.


Today, welding as a fastening system is much different than the forge welding of days past. Instead of simply using the heat of a forge, welding can be applied in concentrated electrical arcs in addition to many other types of weld operations such as induction, laser, and chemical operations.


The majority of stud welding is done using a drawn arc electrical current. The filler tip of a stud and the metal of the base surface are heated using the current, and they become molten. Then the arc is shut off, and the stud is moved onto the base. As the molten metals combine and cool, molecular fusion occurs.


Molecular Fusion

To create an effective, true weld connection, molecular fusion is necessary. Drawn arc stud and CD stud welding use heat, closeness, and cleanliness of metal atoms to create a bond at the molecular level. The process of heating the stud and base surface with an electrical arc current doesn’t just melt one metal onto the other. It effectively joins one metal molecule to another and fully fuses two atomic structures into one. In this way, stud welding creates a connection point stronger than both the stud or the base material alone.


The role of molecular fusion is key to the use of stud welding as a fastening system for construction, ship building, food equipment welding, automotive fabrication, sheet metal manufacturing, electrical enclosures, bridge building, and much more. Without the strong connection point that molecular fusion provides, the components and assemblies built in many industries wouldn’t be the reliable structures and tools they are today.


To learn more about stud welding fastening systems, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

Technical Specifications and the Engineering of Stud Welding

As one of the most versatile and widely used fastening systems, stud welding is an invaluable operation for a broad range of manufacturing industries. Because of its wide range of uses, stud welding has to meet a large number of engineering specifications, such as sizing, strength, materials, format, and process specifications. For any stud-welding project specifications, Northland Fastening Systems provides services and offers equipment, studs, accessories, and everything you need to get the job done.


Stud welding can be performed with drawn arc welding or CD welding units that vary in sizes, portability, and capability. Though both drawn arc and CD welding are rapid operations that provide a weld connection stronger than the stud and surface material combined, they differ in several ways when it comes to the engineering specifications.


Drawn Arc Stud Welding

  1. Materials used:
    1. Low-carbon steel with tensile strength of 60,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 50,000 psi minimum, and a 20% minimum elongation in 2 inches. When annealed, the tensile strength becomes 50,000 psi, yield becomes 35,000 psi, and elongation becomes 25%.
    2. Stainless steel with tensile strength of 85,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 40,000 psi minimum, and a 45% minimum elongation in 2 inches.
  2. Stud fastening torques:
    1. For low-carbon steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 17.8 and 2831 lbs per inch.
    2. For stainless steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 19.8 and 3440 lbs per inch.


CD Stud Welding

CD welding studs use a variety of materials from steel to brass. Each stud material provides a successful weld that is dependent on the base material. Some are more suited to a base material than others. For example:

  1. Mild steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to other mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steels and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  2. Stainless steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  3. Aluminum:
    1. Excellent when welded to die-cast zinc alloys and common aluminum alloys
    2. Cannot be welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, or electrolytic copper
  4. Brass:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to galvanized sheet materials and common aluminum alloys


Learn more about engineering specifications in the stud welding industry with Northland Fastening Systems. To get started with us today, call (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Old and New Uses of Stud Welding Equipment in Shipbuilding

The use of stud welding for shipbuilding and other maritime construction is as old as the welding process itself. As far back as the turn of the 19th century, simple forms of stud welding were developed for various shipbuilding purposes.


By the end of WWI, stud welding began to play a more significant role for industrial shipbuilding of trade and military vessels. Many wars and technological advancements later, stud welding remains a primary manufacturing operation for shipbuilding large and small. Northland Fastening Systems provides a wide range of reliable, high-quality stud welding equipment suited for any type of shipbuilding projects and other construction welding.


From portable automated welding units to highly specified welding studs, NFS has everything you might need for even the largest shipbuilding project. The history of shipbuilding was revolutionized by the development of stud welding procedures suited to the fabrication of seaworthy vessels and other marine components. Today, both drawn arc and CD stud welding are used in a wide range of shipbuilding operations. Some of the most prevalent of these operations include:


  • plating hulls and protecting or streamlining other exteriors
  • building decking, bulkheads, and other interior structures
  • fittings including portholes, hatches, or storage units
  • pipe and cable hangers and protection units
  • manhole fittings, winches, ladders, and other functional accessory components
  • propellers, rudders, steering shafts, masts, and other locomotive components
  • connecting lining and wedging joints, anchoring equipment, shell plating, and ceramic backing
  • performing repairs at sea


In a nutshell, a broad majority of shipbuilding operations rely on stud welding. Technicians working on shipbuilding projects can find all the stud welding equipment they need with Northland Fastening Systems. Our stud welding technicians provide CD and drawn arc welding services and guidance, and we offer stud welding equipment including stud welding units and welding guns for sale or rent, welding studs for CD and drawn arc welding in a variety of metals, sizes, and other specification, and any other stud welding accessories you may need.


Stud welding operations used in shipbuilding and maritime manufacturing contributes to the construction of small boats for personal use, small to large boats for police, forestry, and coast guard purposes, long-haul freighters and milk truck delivery boats, submarine research vessels, pleasure cruise ships, armed military vessels, aircraft carriers, and many other types of sea and freshwater ships.


To learn more about the use of stud welding for shipbuilding and other marine construction purposes, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770, or to find out more about the stud welding equipment we offer, contact request a quote online.

Physical Effects of Stud Welding and the Advantages of Automation

Stud welding is a fabrication technique that is critical to a wide range of manufacturing industries. Not only is it used in equipment manufacturing of all shapes and sizes, it’s also an important part of building construction and other large structures. Because of the immense prevalence of stud welding in the industrial world, it’s important to have access to quality stud welding equipment, studs of all dimensions and materials, and comprehensive accessories. That’s why Northland Fastening Systems provides everything fabricators need for their stud welding projects and services.

Stud welding, though an effective and widely versatile fabrication method, requires a lot of repetitive motions. Technicians often perform more than 1,000 welds in one day on the job, and the repeated motions involved in the process can take a physical toll. However, this effect is not the only impact that welding technicians experience with long-term stud welding work.


Impact of Prolonged Stud Welding

Stud welding technicians are exposed to two types of potential physical harm:

  1. Physical stress from the bending motions of welding many studs repeatedly
  2. Various health risks from the fumes created in the welding process

Of these two, the fumes created with each stud weld operation is an issue addressed less often than it should be. The heat and pressure of both drawn arc and CD stud welding operations creates a plume of respirable metalloid particles small enough to be forced into a radius of approximately 12-20 inches. These plumes can contain zinc, nickel, iron, copper, manganese, chromium, cobalt, lead, and more, depending on the welding materials.

Many welding technicians wear little-to-no breathing protection, and because of this may be at greater risk for lung cancer, metal fume fever, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Some studies have also shown that welders exposed to welding fumes over extended periods of time may be at greater risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Despite this danger, there are many ways to minimize the potential of physical damage from the fumes and the welding process itself.


How Automation Can Protect Your Welders

Automated stud welding offers many solutions for preventing or limiting health risks and physical long-term effects many welders experience. NFS offers automation capabilities that can change the way your welding technicians perform their tasks. Stud welding units that are automated can greatly reduce the need for technicians to perform repeated physical movements to establish a weld connection. Automation also often removes the welding technician’s breathing zone from the dangers of the welding plume. Limiting the exposure to fumes and the time spent performing repetitive motions can significantly reduce physical harm to your stud welding technicians. NFS provides a wide range of automated stud welding equipment, including units that can withstand harsh environments.


Protecting your workers and streamlining your stud welding production starts with automation. Get started with Northland Fastening Systems today and contact us at (651) 730-7770 to learn more about minimizing the health risks of stud welding and the benefits of automation.

Stud Welder Highlights: Using the HBS Quick-Boy for High-Quality Automatic Welding

Stud welding is a critical operation for a wide range of construction and manufacturing projects, big and small. Not only does stud welding offer a rapid connection point even stronger than the stud itself, it also creates a clean, one-sided weld that allows manufacturers to build cosmetically-appealing components without sacrificing durability or reliability. In addition to the quality of construction stud welding operations give manufacturers, there are many different types of stud welders that are built for automating and streamlining the welding process. At Northland Fastening Systems, we have several automatic welding tools available for purchase or rental so you can complete your stud welding project with the speed, ease, and durability you need.


At NFS, we have a broad range of quality automatic stud welding equipment well-suited to a variety of drawn arc stud welding and capacitor discharge stud welding operations. From stud welding guns and units to automation accessories, NFS has everything you need to expand your limits beyond standard manual stud welding.


One of the significant concerns of automatic welding is the issue of movement. While automatic stud welders are highly efficient when they perform welding operations within their range of motion, you can quickly lose efficiency when you have to move a welding gun from position to position manually. That’s why the HBS Quick-Boy is a great addition to any stud welding tool kit.

Quick-Boy at a Glance

The HBS Quick-Boy is a stud gun holder and positioning device that acts like the human arm that would be used in manual stud welding. It’s generally suited to the PAH-1 automatic welding gun, but it can also be used for manual stud welding with C 08 and CA 08 guns. Not only does the Quick-Boy eliminate the issue of constant repositioning, it also gives a wide range of motion on three axes so you can move your welding gun to any point along the Quick-Boy’s range of height, breadth, and depth. The Quick-Boy is lightweight and easily attaches to the workspace, offers smooth and clean movements, and has a built-in seating for the weld gun that reduces scrape rates while you weld with tip ignition.


If you work with an automatic or manual stud welding gun over broad areas, the HBS Quick-Boy is the tool for you. It will help you work longer without tiring, reduce risks of back or shoulder pain from overuse, and let you work more quickly and efficiently.


Request a quote for the Quick-Boy or any of our other stud welding equipment and services today, or contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 to learn more about our automatic welding and manual stud welding expertise and products.

Building Better, Safer, and Longer-Lasting Water Towers with Quality Structural Steel Welding

For over twenty years, Northland Fastening Systems has provided stud welding services and expertise in addition to high-quality parts and accessories for a wide range of industries. From slender studs used in various food-grade stud welding projects to the strong connection points stud welding supports steel structures with, our team of experienced and highly knowledgeable welders can meet all our customers’ needs. Not only does performing structural steel welding with drawn arc studs save time and money because stud welding is such a rapid, low waste welding technique, it also creates connections points that are sturdier and longer-lasting than any other methods of building with structural sheet metal.


When you partner with NFS for stud welding services or products, you can expect the highest quality and most comprehensive welding possibilities for your structural steel project. Our team of expert welders has worked to complete a wide range of structural steel welding projects, from small units to large scale systems. One of the more unusual structures we’ve worked on is the manufacturing of sheet metal forms used in the construction of water towers.


Building Water Towers


Because water towers have to withstand the weight of thousands of gallons of water and the pressure that weight imposes without contaminating the water with rust and other corrosion, building water tower structures is highly specialized work. Stud welding is a key manufacturing technique for the building of several water tower components including:


  • Structural legs that support the tank
  • Interior tubing running from the tank to the ground
  • Structural supports placed strategically on the legs and tank
  • Access ladders, stands, railing, and panels for maintenance workers
  • Any additional sheet metal components unique to each tower ranging from cosmetic to structurally integral


Water towers have to be safe, sealed, and weather resistant. They are a vital part of many city plans and communities, providing clean, healthy water to the residents and businesses. The production of tight, durable, long-lasting components of water towers is something our stud welders take very seriously. With our stud welding capabilities, the production of sheet metal parts for many structures, including water towers, is a streamlined operation.


Not only does NFS offer sheet metal stud welding services for large structures, we also provide sheet metal stud welding for smaller components that don’t have to hold up to extreme conditions but require the clean look of stud welding.


To learn more about our stud welding services for sheet metal and our additional work in structural steel welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today, or request a quote to get started in a partnership.

The History and Importance of the American Welding Society for CD and Drawn Arc Stud Welding Supplies

As a provider of stud welding supplies, welder rentals, and comprehensive stud welding services, Northland Fastening Systems is dedicated to continually promoting quality and best practices for stud welding in all industries. Two significantly positive impacts on our ability to offer the most reliable stud welding services and stud welding products are our own quality control systems and our goal to meet the standards of the American Welding Society (AWS). The AWS is the primary national outliner of the highest quality welding in all capacities. Our stud welding technicians offer services to a wide range of industries that follow AWS regulations, and NFS provides a wide range of quality stud welding supplies and accessories.


Since its foundation in 1919, the American Welding Society has worked as a nonprofit organization to improve, bolster, and establish best welding and related practices at an industrial level. NFS supports and strives to maintain AWS standards with our own work. As a part of this work to meet AWS standards, all our stud welding supplies, tools, accessories, and stud welding services meet the specifications of the welding society as well as our own in-house quality standards.


While the AWS offers a certification program for companies providing services including welding, soldering, thermal spraying, brazing, and other forms of cutting and allied joining processes, this is just a small portion of the important work they do. The AWS has helped to support unparalleled work in the welding industry, both in uniting welders and welding organizations across the country, and in expanding the scope of welding science from the small stud welding equipment we use at NFS to large-scale automated arc welding equipment at military, aerospace, and industrial levels.


Headquartered in Miami, FL, the AWS continues to establish welding codes that serve to advance welding operations and reach, from improving the practices used commonly in the industry to discovering and testing newer, potentially more effective welding processes. The AWS works to unite welders and welding industrial players across the country with the basis of three pillars of operations:


  1. Certification: The AWS has a quality welders certification program for companies in the welding industry that is offered for a variety of roles including welders, engineers, inspectors, supervisors, sales representatives, and more.
  2. Membership: There are over 70,000 members of the AWS across the globe, from individuals to corporations to students. Members of the AWS have access to a full range of benefits that vary depending on membership type.
  3. Research and Education: To continue the development of welding sciences, the AWS is committed to researching welding operations and educating those in the industry. This includes programs like SENSE, international seminars, widespread research labs, and much more.


When you partner with NFS, you can trust our stud welding technicians and stud welding supplies to meet AWS standards every step of the way. To learn more about our services and products, contact us at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote today.

The History of Stud Welding and Using Stud Welding Equipment Today

Various forms of welding and metal forging have been around for centuries, but the process of stud welding is one of the most recent welding concepts utilized in today’s manufacturing world. Stud welding today can perform rapid, automated, and precise weld connections with a wide range of standard welding metals and highly specialized weld alloys. Whether you need to build a shelving unit with thin CD studs or put together a component with more structural strength, stud welding procedures offer a quick, reliable method of creating metal-to-metal connections. For high-quality stud welding equipment including tool rentals, studs and accessories for sale, and welding services, look no further than Northland Fastening Systems.


Our commitment to provide stud welding equipment and services is one we’ve upheld for over 30 years since our foundation in 1987. While the processes and tools used in stud welding procedures have changed since our beginning, the history of stud welding goes back further and has seen even greater changes along the way.


The first significant uses of stud welding as an industrial process began during the early 1900s just after the end of World War I. Records of these uses come from shipyards and shipbuilding docks in the industrial port towns of England. The first stud welding tools were simplistic devices that inserted a stud into the tip of a weld-head which could then be lifted away from the point of weld using a magnetic coil.


When stud welding proved to be a much more efficient method of connecting small weld points than other operations, innovative engineers and manufacturers sought to streamline and automate the process. In the early years of World War II, stud welding operations began to resemble what we use today for drawn arc stud welding processes. American engineer Ted Nelson and a few other pioneers in the stud welding industry strove to support the industrial side of the war effort by improving the possibilities stud welding could provide. Their work ultimately led to near fully-automated stud welding capabilities.


After WWII, stud welders continued to provide valuable services to the military, automotive, aerospace, and marine industries as well as many others. The development of more precise, higher quality drawn arc stud welding became a priority for many industry players including those involved in the Space Race of the 50s and 60s. NASA engineers played a key role in the improvement of drawn arc stud welding and the integration of capacitor discharge welding into mainstream manufacturing practices.


Today, we are able to utilize stud welding processes for an exceptionally comprehensive range of manufacturing purposes. To get started on your stud welding project, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 to learn more about our stud welding equipment and services, or request a quote today.

Properties and Benefits of Low Carbon Steel for Stud Welding with Deformed Bar Anchors

Carbon steels have a wide range of uses from paneling and large equipment fabrication to precision cutting tools. The extent of carbon steel uses is largely due to the widely varying carbon content that can exist in a steel type. From carbon contents as low as 0.12% to as high as 2.1%, carbon steel offers a broad difference in properties that is even further widened with additions of small amounts of other metals such as copper, manganese, chromium, titanium, nickel, and many others. At Northland Fastening Systems, we utilize low carbon steel in the form of deformed bar anchors that are key in a number of stud welding projects.

Northland Fastening Systems provides comprehensive stud welding services, including drawn arc stud welding and capacitor discharge stud welding; we also offer equipment rentals and stud welding products. While we stock standard and specialty studs for both drawn arc and CD welding operations, we also supply deformed bar anchors of varying stud sizes.

Deformed bar anchor studs are critical components in drawn arc weld projects where concrete support is needed at the weld connection point. Deformed bar anchors are made from low carbon steels to significantly increase the material resistance to shear tension forces on a load-bearing part.

Low Carbon Steel

For a steel body to be considered low carbon, it must have a minimum of 0.05% and a maximum of 0.30% carbon content. Low carbon steel is best suited for bolstering concrete components and load-bearing parts because of its high strength and low cost. In stud welding projects, low carbon deformed bar anchors are highly effective in strengthening the load and bearing plate resistance to shear tension, both shock forces and constant pressures.

Low carbon steel is also more workable and ductile than higher carbon steels, making it more pliant against stresses. This means it can readily flex with shear tensions without becoming brittle or cracking. Additionally, low carbon steel can be cold-formed into deformed bar anchors of various sizes; the surface can be heat treated to alter its hardness and cosmetic factors, and low carbon steel can still maintain quality even with trace metal impurities.

Because low carbon steel is cost-effective, strong, and easily manipulated, it’s the perfect material to form bar anchors with high-functioning bolstering capabilities at a range of different diameters. Northland Fastening Systems supplies deformed bar anchors at 3/8” to ¾” with lengths ranging from 8 ½” to 60 ½” to meet the requirements of virtually any stud welding, load-bearing project.

For cost-effective, low carbon deformed bar anchors and many other options for drawn arc stud welding and CD stud welding, Northland Fastening Systems is your one-stop-shop for supplies and services. Contact us at (651) 730-7770 to learn more about our options for stud welding supplies and services, including variants of deformed bar anchors, or request a free quote online and get started with us today.

The Key to Performing Excellence in Arc and CD Stud Welding with High-Quality Steel Weld Studs

Welding of all kinds is one of the most innovative modern technological developments for metal working. Today, even within the welding field, capabilities and equipment have expanded in leaps and bounds with advanced services in automated welding, capacitor discharge (CD) welding, and much more. At Northland Fastening Systems, we specialize in stud welding operations including providing state-of-the-art equipment and high-quality steel weld studs for drawn arc stud welding and CD stud welding.


When it comes to stud welding of any kind, it’s impossible to form a strong connection without the best quality steel weld studs. Northland Fastening Systems supplies the best quality steel weld studs made from only the highest quality materials for all your stud welding needs. Our products range from flanged and non-flanged CD studs to virtually all specifications of drawn arc studs.


We’re committed to providing as wide a variety as possible for studs and offer special sizing on request because of the highly exacting sizing specifications and performance demands all of our customers’ projects require.


Each project may demand very precise applications and types of welding studs – making it a complicated and nuanced process to apply stud welding to any product – but this demand is for good reason. Each welding procedure itself is different, but all are effective and innovative in their own way. For example, there are many differences between CD stud welding and drawn arc stud welding, but both are effective and beneficial when applied to the right project.


Drawn Arc Stud Welding


The stud is welded onto a work plate using an arcing current and a ceramic ferrule flux, forcing the stud to join with the plate.


Drawn arc stud welding is utilized to weld studs with larger diameters than CD stud welding. For studs up to 1¼” in diameter, drawn arc stud welding is an efficient way to fasten studs to heavier bases resulting in a stronger, more durable connection than CD stud welding. Drawn arc welding also benefits from its use of ceramic arc shields that maintain the weld and a direct current allowing for the use of 220 to 440 volt power sources during the welding process.


CD Stud Welding


The stud is welded onto the work plate with downforce and a capacitor discharge heating the plate to molten metal. The weld bond is formed after the metal cools.


CD stud welding is a highly efficient way to perform rapid welding operations for thin studs and sheet metal materials. It can be used for studs up to ⅜ diameter for up to 20 welds per minute, making it the fastest stud welding procedure. Additionally, CD stud welding leaves a cleaner weld with no marking on the opposite side of the work plate and it can be used to weld different metals. CD stud welding only requires 110 volt power sources.

See the Difference Steel Weld Studs Make for Yourself

No matter the stud welding operation you need to perform to complete your project, high-quality aluminum, mild steel, and stainless-steel weld studs will make all the difference in the final product. To learn more about our equipment, studs, and services, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.