Avoiding Common Defects with CD Stud Welding

Stud welding is an operation that many industries utilize because of its diverse benefits to a wide range of production processes. While drawn arc stud welding is key for heavy-duty studs, load-bearing composite building, and other large-scale construction, CD stud welding has an equal frequency of use in different types of construction.


If you’re using CD stud welding in your production process, you will gain the benefits of rapid, economical, low-energy welding that provides a clean weld with no reverse-side marking. With the help of Northland Fastening Systems technical support and our selection of all the tools, studs, pins, and accessories you might need for CD stud welding, you can get your job done with ease and quality.


CD stud welding is a form of resistance welding, unlike drawn arc welding. Arc welding is a fusion welding process that often requires a filler material and frequently leaves a slag from the flux used that has to be cleaned to finish the product. CD stud welding doesn’t require a filler material and it leaves a clean weld that won’t need finishing after the weld is done.


When done correctly, CD stud welding is a fast and easy process that leaves a pristine, strong weld. However, there are some defects that can occur when CD stud welding is not performed accurately or with the right materials:


  • Spread of molten metal from the weld site is a common issue when weld pressure is too low, the current is too high, or the weld is timed incorrectly. Molten metal expulsion can also be evidence of surface contamination.
  • Spattering of metal is another sign of too high a current. It creates excess heat that can cause explosive spray and loss of metal at the weld site, weakening the weld overall.
  • Cracked weld connections are a clear alert to a weak weld. These cracks often occur due to lack of pressure during the weld leading to an incomplete or porous connection. Inadequate pressure during the weld leads to a low tensile strength at the connection point.
  • Indentations at the weld site are another result of incorrect pressure and/or current. With too much pressure, the current decreases and a poor weld connection is formed because of the low pressure. Welding studs indented into surface material even slightly are a sign of too high of pressure and too low of current/temperature.
  • Misshapen weld spots are also a common defect with incorrectly performed CD stud welding. A strong, accurate weld should have a perfectly circular weld mark. Bloated, smushed, or otherwise misshapen weld spots are a result of contamination or misaligned electrodes in the welding tool.


These defects can be easily avoided when you choose to work with NFS products and take advantage of our technicians’ expertise whenever questions arise. To learn more about our CD stud welding products and other stud welding supplies, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 today. Request a quote online to get started on your stud welding project now.


Application of Shear Connectors in Thru-Deck Stud Welding

Stud welding is a versatile process with many industrial applications. While stud welding is often primarily used in exterior or visible interior installations, it is also a key operation for large-scale construction. Shear connectors and other anchor bar systems provide necessary strengthening of a structure and critical support against stresses. If you are fabricating a system with metal decking or other weld-thru metal structures, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) can provide the shear connectors, anchor bars, welding tools, and any other studs or accessories you need to get the job done. When it comes to thru-deck stud welding operations, NFS offers the technical support and tools needed.


Composite construction applications like thru-deck welding requires careful consideration of each material used in the process and understanding of the process itself. When it comes to the composite building of structural beams, galvanized decking, and concrete, shear connectors welding studs are key for long-term structural integrity.


The included image shows a three-dimensional cross section of a weld-thru decking application. The shear connecter studs welded directly through the galvanized decking material fasten it to steel I-beams. A rebar webbing is overlaid for support and flexibility of the final layer of concrete finishing the composite system. As a complete decking system, this composite structure can be utilized in a range of applications, but is primarily used in the construction of multilevel buildings with steel beam skeletons.


The use of shear connector welding studs is critical in this type of composite construction system. If you are working with thru-deck weld construction processes, NFS can provide comprehensive shear connectors in varying dimensions, including stud diameter and length.


For general-purpose thru-deck composite welding, our shear connector studs have a minimum tensile strength of 61,000 psi (420 MPa) and a minimum yield strength of 49,000 psi (340 MPa). For shear connectors that will be used in composite beam construction like the processes used in multilevel buildings, our specialized studs have a minimum tensile strength of 65,000 psi (450 MPa) and a minimum yield strength of 51,000 psi (350 MPa). NFS also offers custom lengths for both types of shear connectors with any of our available diameter.


Not only do the connector studs fasten galvanized decking to structural beams, they are also key in shear load bearing. The minimum tensile and yield strength of each stud works together to support entire buildings upward of 100 stories. The system of a composite beam construction increases the flex range and support strength of the building as a whole, which allows it to react to movements of the earth plates, the wind, and other natural elements; weight inside the building; and changes in molecular size with temperature shifts. In every composite structure, shear connectors are key components.


To learn more about weld-thru decking and the use of stud welding in composite construction, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 today, or request a quote online to get started with us today.



Installing Insulation Sheeting Using Welding Studs

The use of various forms of insulation is extremely prevalent across industries. Not only is insulation used to control temperatures inside buildings and protect pipes from freezing in cold winter months, it’s also used extensively in many other applications. This includes everything from thermal power stations to electrical systems, mechanical systems, climate-controlled warehousing, fireproofing, automobiles, planes, spacecraft, protection against corrosion, and more.


Because the most effective installation method for the majority of insulations is stud welding, insulation and construction are key industries Northland Fastening System serves. We provide all the welding studs, welding units, stud welding guns, and accessories you need to complete your project.


Using CD stud welding processes to install insulation is the most effective method of attachment. The process of stud welding creates a connection point with no reverse side marking and stronger than the stud and base material itself. It also streamlines and speeds up the installation process, providing a rapid, short cycle install of insulation or fireproof sheeting.


How it works: Insulation sheeting can be installed with CD stud welding using pins that can be inserted through the insulating material and welded to the base material in a short cycle process. The tip of the pin is welded to the base material while cupped or flat heads hold down the insulation material. This welding process is a one-step system that allows quick and effective insulation sheeting attachment to base metal materials.


Applications: CD welding installation of insulation sheeting can be applied in any situation where the base material is a weldable metal such as steel, aluminum, or brass. This includes insulation for HVAC ducts, pipes, buildings, incinerators, equipment exposed to fire, plane cabins, spacecrafts, water towers, warehouses, and much more. Steel structures can be insulated against corrosion and temperatures up to 1,250º C (2,282º F) using stud welding in the installation process.


Benefits: In all applications of stud welding, there are many operational benefits. The process improves efficiency and cuts costs because it can be performed quickly with low energy use. Studs also create clean, strong bonds with conservative use of materials and long-term effectiveness. Installing insulation with stud welding streamlines the process, forms a lasting bond, and is visually clean and professional.


Get Welding Studs and Other Equipment for Your Next Project

If you need to install insulation or fire-resistant sheeting, stud welding is the way to go. To learn more about applications of stud welding or to get started on your project with the best welding studs, tools, and accessories, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

General Applications of Drawn Arc and CD Stud Welding

Stud welding is one of the most versatile manufacturing operations for small to large scale construction. Though it was originally developed for use in shipbuilding of various types of vessels, it has grown in application to be used in many manufacturing industries worldwide. Its use in so many industries has helped to streamline and speed up the production process while improving the quality and long-term reliability of components and full assemblies.


If you are using stud welding in your fabrication processes, Northland Fastening Systems is your one-stop-shop for all the tools, studs, and accessories you need to get the job done. Our team of experts can guide you through the process of selecting the right specifications of studs, welding units, and any other items needed.


Because stud welding is such a versatile operation providing a connection point between two metals that is stronger than the metals themselves, it is used in an increasingly wide range of applications. Broadly speaking, these applications include the following:


  • Structural Construction: This includes buildings, bridges, water towers, elevators, mining structures, tunnels, overpasses, facades, highways, window frames, doors, and much more.
  • Automotive Construction: Stud welding is used extensively in the construction of all types of vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, SUVs, recreational vehicles, transport vehicles, fork trucks, military vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft, farm machinery, trains, cable cars, excavation vehicles, and much more.
  • Shipbuilding: Many components of ships of all types are fabricated using stud welding. This includes flooring, ceilings, walkways, kitchens, exterior hulling, lifeboats, insulation, food prep stations, and more.
  • Sheet Metal Construction: Various cabinets, enclosures, and other sheet metal products are made using stud welding for clean connection points with no reverse side marking. This includes electrical enclosures, signs, deposit boxes, mail containers, hinges, hand tools, grills, office products, and more.
  • Appliance Construction: Domestic and commercial appliances are also made using stud welding operations. This includes ovens, stoves, refrigerators, ranges, dishwashers, dryers, stereos, financial processors, vending machines, freezers, ice machines, cookware, and much more.
  • Climate Control System Construction: Components of quality HVAC and other climate control systems are also fabricated using stud welding including ducts, vents, dehumidifiers, fans, insulation, and more.
  • Sound-Proofing Construction: The construction of soundproof rooms and systems with stud welding are key to a wide range of applications. This includes recording booths, equipment testing rooms, ducting, building facades, roads, and more.
  • Power Generator Construction: Any type of energy generator needs a specialized system to isolate and transmit that power. Stud welding is key in the fabrication of transformers, reactors, boilers, nuclear systems, steam generators, coal systems, refractories, incinerators, and more.


Stud welding is also useful in the installation of insulation against heat, cold, fire, weather, and other harsh elements for a wide range of structures and objects.


To learn more about the applications of stud welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today. To get started on your next project, request a quote online or give us a call.

Troubleshooting Connection Points for CD Stud Welding

While CD stud welding is a fairly simple process to the outside observer, the science, physics, and engineering behind it are complex. Very specific temperatures and times must be applied to the stud and weld surface for a connection point to be successful. When performed correctly, in fact, a CD stud weld connection point will be stronger than the stud itself. To help you get the job done quickly and efficiently with quality results, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) provides comprehensive stud welding supplies and services, including welding studs of varying dimensions and thread sizing, stud welding tools for rent and purchase, and a variety of welding accessories for CD stud welding.


NFS technical service and stud welding tool manufacturers provide rich information about the calibration of stud weld equipment and the pairing of welding materials. However, if you are having difficulties calibrating your equipment and are seeing poor results, there are basic troubleshooting procedures you can easily perform.


For example, troubleshooting a poor weld connection starts with testing for weld failure.


Weld Failure

A successful stud weld connection point is stronger than the stud itself. Because of this, placing stress on both the stud and connection point at the same time to the point of failure can tell you the condition and accuracy of the weld. Ideally, the stud will fail before the weld point because it should be weaker (as seen at 2:18 in our demonstration of the HBS Visar 650). If the weld connection fails at all, the weld connection was unsuccessful. This failure could occur for several reasons, including:


  • Cold Weld: CD stud welding procedures have to meet a specific temperature and that temperature has to be applied for a specific period of time. The temperatures and times vary depending on the size and material of the stud as well as the weld surface material. It becomes very clear, however, that a weld was too cold (too low of a temperature, too short of a weld time, or both) if it fails in a stress test. Visually, you can also see if a weld was too cold if the melted area around the stud isn’t an acceptable 360º deep radius.


  • Hot Weld: A weld connection point can also fail because of a hot weld if the time or temperature are applied in excess (or if excess heat is applied very quickly). The most obvious sign of a hot weld is a burn-through, which manifests as any distortion to the reverse side of the base material. Even the slightest distortion can compromise the quality of a weld. Another sign of less dramatic hot welds is the splash size of the stud around its base at the weld point. A wide or messy splash of cooled molten metal are a common sign of a hot weld that will fail under stress.


To learn more about the potential failures and troubleshooting CD stud welding, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

The Role of Molecular Fusion for Stud Weld Fastening Systems

Stud welding as a fastening system is a highly valuable manufacturing operation that can be applied to a wide range of industrial applications. From food-grade welding to structural steel fabrication, stud welding plays a critical role in the connection of various metals. At Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), we are dedicated to operating as a one-stop-shop for all your stud welding needs, including stud welding tools for rent or purchase, studs of varying dimensions and materials, stud welding accessories, and our own expert services.


Because stud welding can be applied to such a wide range of industrial projects, big and small, we believe it’s necessary to provide an equally wide range of stud welding supplies as well as our technical support services. NFS is a comprehensive provider of the tools you need to complete a project using studs as industrial fastening systems.


Today, welding as a fastening system is much different than the forge welding of days past. Instead of simply using the heat of a forge, welding can be applied in concentrated electrical arcs in addition to many other types of weld operations such as induction, laser, and chemical operations.


The majority of stud welding is done using a drawn arc electrical current. The filler tip of a stud and the metal of the base surface are heated using the current, and they become molten. Then the arc is shut off, and the stud is moved onto the base. As the molten metals combine and cool, molecular fusion occurs.


Molecular Fusion

To create an effective, true weld connection, molecular fusion is necessary. Drawn arc stud and CD stud welding use heat, closeness, and cleanliness of metal atoms to create a bond at the molecular level. The process of heating the stud and base surface with an electrical arc current doesn’t just melt one metal onto the other. It effectively joins one metal molecule to another and fully fuses two atomic structures into one. In this way, stud welding creates a connection point stronger than both the stud or the base material alone.


The role of molecular fusion is key to the use of stud welding as a fastening system for construction, ship building, food equipment welding, automotive fabrication, sheet metal manufacturing, electrical enclosures, bridge building, and much more. Without the strong connection point that molecular fusion provides, the components and assemblies built in many industries wouldn’t be the reliable structures and tools they are today.


To learn more about stud welding fastening systems, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

Technical Specifications and the Engineering of Stud Welding

As one of the most versatile and widely used fastening systems, stud welding is an invaluable operation for a broad range of manufacturing industries. Because of its wide range of uses, stud welding has to meet a large number of engineering specifications, such as sizing, strength, materials, format, and process specifications. For any stud-welding project specifications, Northland Fastening Systems provides services and offers equipment, studs, accessories, and everything you need to get the job done.


Stud welding can be performed with drawn arc welding or CD welding units that vary in sizes, portability, and capability. Though both drawn arc and CD welding are rapid operations that provide a weld connection stronger than the stud and surface material combined, they differ in several ways when it comes to the engineering specifications.


Drawn Arc Stud Welding

  1. Materials used:
    1. Low-carbon steel with tensile strength of 60,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 50,000 psi minimum, and a 20% minimum elongation in 2 inches. When annealed, the tensile strength becomes 50,000 psi, yield becomes 35,000 psi, and elongation becomes 25%.
    2. Stainless steel with tensile strength of 85,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 40,000 psi minimum, and a 45% minimum elongation in 2 inches.
  2. Stud fastening torques:
    1. For low-carbon steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 17.8 and 2831 lbs per inch.
    2. For stainless steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 19.8 and 3440 lbs per inch.


CD Stud Welding

CD welding studs use a variety of materials from steel to brass. Each stud material provides a successful weld that is dependent on the base material. Some are more suited to a base material than others. For example:

  1. Mild steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to other mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steels and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  2. Stainless steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  3. Aluminum:
    1. Excellent when welded to die-cast zinc alloys and common aluminum alloys
    2. Cannot be welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, or electrolytic copper
  4. Brass:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to galvanized sheet materials and common aluminum alloys


Learn more about engineering specifications in the stud welding industry with Northland Fastening Systems. To get started with us today, call (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Old and New Uses of Stud Welding Equipment in Shipbuilding

The use of stud welding for shipbuilding and other maritime construction is as old as the welding process itself. As far back as the turn of the 19th century, simple forms of stud welding were developed for various shipbuilding purposes.


By the end of WWI, stud welding began to play a more significant role for industrial shipbuilding of trade and military vessels. Many wars and technological advancements later, stud welding remains a primary manufacturing operation for shipbuilding large and small. Northland Fastening Systems provides a wide range of reliable, high-quality stud welding equipment suited for any type of shipbuilding projects and other construction welding.


From portable automated welding units to highly specified welding studs, NFS has everything you might need for even the largest shipbuilding project. The history of shipbuilding was revolutionized by the development of stud welding procedures suited to the fabrication of seaworthy vessels and other marine components. Today, both drawn arc and CD stud welding are used in a wide range of shipbuilding operations. Some of the most prevalent of these operations include:


  • plating hulls and protecting or streamlining other exteriors
  • building decking, bulkheads, and other interior structures
  • fittings including portholes, hatches, or storage units
  • pipe and cable hangers and protection units
  • manhole fittings, winches, ladders, and other functional accessory components
  • propellers, rudders, steering shafts, masts, and other locomotive components
  • connecting lining and wedging joints, anchoring equipment, shell plating, and ceramic backing
  • performing repairs at sea


In a nutshell, a broad majority of shipbuilding operations rely on stud welding. Technicians working on shipbuilding projects can find all the stud welding equipment they need with Northland Fastening Systems. Our stud welding technicians provide CD and drawn arc welding services and guidance, and we offer stud welding equipment including stud welding units and welding guns for sale or rent, welding studs for CD and drawn arc welding in a variety of metals, sizes, and other specification, and any other stud welding accessories you may need.


Stud welding operations used in shipbuilding and maritime manufacturing contributes to the construction of small boats for personal use, small to large boats for police, forestry, and coast guard purposes, long-haul freighters and milk truck delivery boats, submarine research vessels, pleasure cruise ships, armed military vessels, aircraft carriers, and many other types of sea and freshwater ships.


To learn more about the use of stud welding for shipbuilding and other marine construction purposes, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770, or to find out more about the stud welding equipment we offer, contact request a quote online.

Physical Effects of Stud Welding and the Advantages of Automation

Stud welding is a fabrication technique that is critical to a wide range of manufacturing industries. Not only is it used in equipment manufacturing of all shapes and sizes, it’s also an important part of building construction and other large structures. Because of the immense prevalence of stud welding in the industrial world, it’s important to have access to quality stud welding equipment, studs of all dimensions and materials, and comprehensive accessories. That’s why Northland Fastening Systems provides everything fabricators need for their stud welding projects and services.

Stud welding, though an effective and widely versatile fabrication method, requires a lot of repetitive motions. Technicians often perform more than 1,000 welds in one day on the job, and the repeated motions involved in the process can take a physical toll. However, this effect is not the only impact that welding technicians experience with long-term stud welding work.


Impact of Prolonged Stud Welding

Stud welding technicians are exposed to two types of potential physical harm:

  1. Physical stress from the bending motions of welding many studs repeatedly
  2. Various health risks from the fumes created in the welding process

Of these two, the fumes created with each stud weld operation is an issue addressed less often than it should be. The heat and pressure of both drawn arc and CD stud welding operations creates a plume of respirable metalloid particles small enough to be forced into a radius of approximately 12-20 inches. These plumes can contain zinc, nickel, iron, copper, manganese, chromium, cobalt, lead, and more, depending on the welding materials.

Many welding technicians wear little-to-no breathing protection, and because of this may be at greater risk for lung cancer, metal fume fever, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Some studies have also shown that welders exposed to welding fumes over extended periods of time may be at greater risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Despite this danger, there are many ways to minimize the potential of physical damage from the fumes and the welding process itself.


How Automation Can Protect Your Welders

Automated stud welding offers many solutions for preventing or limiting health risks and physical long-term effects many welders experience. NFS offers automation capabilities that can change the way your welding technicians perform their tasks. Stud welding units that are automated can greatly reduce the need for technicians to perform repeated physical movements to establish a weld connection. Automation also often removes the welding technician’s breathing zone from the dangers of the welding plume. Limiting the exposure to fumes and the time spent performing repetitive motions can significantly reduce physical harm to your stud welding technicians. NFS provides a wide range of automated stud welding equipment, including units that can withstand harsh environments.


Protecting your workers and streamlining your stud welding production starts with automation. Get started with Northland Fastening Systems today and contact us at (651) 730-7770 to learn more about minimizing the health risks of stud welding and the benefits of automation.

Stud Welder Highlights: Using the HBS Quick-Boy for High-Quality Automatic Welding

Stud welding is a critical operation for a wide range of construction and manufacturing projects, big and small. Not only does stud welding offer a rapid connection point even stronger than the stud itself, it also creates a clean, one-sided weld that allows manufacturers to build cosmetically-appealing components without sacrificing durability or reliability. In addition to the quality of construction stud welding operations give manufacturers, there are many different types of stud welders that are built for automating and streamlining the welding process. At Northland Fastening Systems, we have several automatic welding tools available for purchase or rental so you can complete your stud welding project with the speed, ease, and durability you need.


At NFS, we have a broad range of quality automatic stud welding equipment well-suited to a variety of drawn arc stud welding and capacitor discharge stud welding operations. From stud welding guns and units to automation accessories, NFS has everything you need to expand your limits beyond standard manual stud welding.


One of the significant concerns of automatic welding is the issue of movement. While automatic stud welders are highly efficient when they perform welding operations within their range of motion, you can quickly lose efficiency when you have to move a welding gun from position to position manually. That’s why the HBS Quick-Boy is a great addition to any stud welding tool kit.

Quick-Boy at a Glance

The HBS Quick-Boy is a stud gun holder and positioning device that acts like the human arm that would be used in manual stud welding. It’s generally suited to the PAH-1 automatic welding gun, but it can also be used for manual stud welding with C 08 and CA 08 guns. Not only does the Quick-Boy eliminate the issue of constant repositioning, it also gives a wide range of motion on three axes so you can move your welding gun to any point along the Quick-Boy’s range of height, breadth, and depth. The Quick-Boy is lightweight and easily attaches to the workspace, offers smooth and clean movements, and has a built-in seating for the weld gun that reduces scrape rates while you weld with tip ignition.


If you work with an automatic or manual stud welding gun over broad areas, the HBS Quick-Boy is the tool for you. It will help you work longer without tiring, reduce risks of back or shoulder pain from overuse, and let you work more quickly and efficiently.


Request a quote for the Quick-Boy or any of our other stud welding equipment and services today, or contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 to learn more about our automatic welding and manual stud welding expertise and products.