Revisiting Basic Terminology for Stud Welding Supplies

If you’re just getting into the stud welding world, there may be some terms thrown around that you’re unfamiliar with. When you break down each type of stud welding and the supplies and tools used, there are some nuances that will arise. Whether you’re just starting out or if you’ve been in the stud welding game for years, you can find all your stud welding supplies and technical support with Northland Fastening Systems.

 

The basic terminology of stud welding can be broken into two categories of drawn arc stud welding and capacitor discharge (CD) stud welding. Within these two types of stud welding, there are variations to operations and specialized tools that can be used to get many effects.

 

Drawn Arc Stud Welding

 

  1. Drawn arc: These welding tools use both flux and a ceramic ferrule. The flux creates a clean weld zone as the tip of the gun makes contact with the surface material, and the ceramic ferrule contains the molten weld point to prevent splatter. Drawn arc welds using flux and a ferrule create the strongest stud bond.
  2. Gas arc: Gas arc welding replaces a ceramic ferrule with inert gas, and it typically does not use a flux to prepare the surface (though some gas arc weld processes still use a flux ball). Gas arcs are used commonly in automated welding operations where precision and speed limit the need for flux. This provides a quick, cost effective weld that saves labor because it does not require chipping off a ferrule when the weld is completed.
  3. Short arc: For operations using high currents and requiring fast weld times, short arc welding can be a reliable process. Short arc welds can tend to be weaker or more porous because they do not use flux or ferrule, but in the right application, they can be key.

 

CD Stud Welding

 

  1. Contact CD welding: This process places the tip of the stud against the weld surface while the weld occurs. The current vaporizes the tip of the stud and an arc is created between the stud and surface. This arc heats both stud and surface metals, and the molten components are connected.
  2. Gap CD welding: Gap welding is a faster process than contact welding. The tip of the stud is poised above the surface as the arc is formed and then pressed against the surface as both become molten.

 

If you are just starting out in the stud welding industry, you can use these terms as a base reference for areas you want to study or try as you learn and become a more professional welder. To learn more about the comprehensive stud welding supplies we provide, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770. Request a quote online to get started with us today.

5 Factors to Consider in the CD Stud Welding Process

Stud welding is a multi-faceted manufacturing operation that can be used in many different settings for a wide range of results. If you plan to work with stud welding as a fastening system, you’ll have many factors to consider before choosing the exact tools you need. The primary factor you need to take into account is whether you’ll be using CD stud welding or drawn arc stud welding.

 

No matter which one you choose, you can rely on Northland Fastening Systems to provide the tools and technical support you need to accomplish any stud welding process.

 

Both drawn arc and CD stud welding processes have their own various factors to consider and navigate through to achieve an end result of a successful, strong weld connection. When it comes to the CD stud welding process, there are five main factors to take into account for any project:

 

  1. Size: Before starting your stud welding process, you need to have the right size studs for the job. If your job requires stud dimensions larger than ⅜”, you may need to consider working with drawn arc welding tools because CD studs typically don’t exceed that dimension.
  2. Surface: The surface you weld to must also be considered. CD stud welding performs excellently with plate or sheet surfaces, but it can become difficult to create a strong connection with a rough surface because the weld time is much shorter than with other stud welding processes. As with all welding, your surface must also be clear of contaminants like rust, oil, or dirt.
  3. Time: CD stud welding is a very rapid fastening operation. Arcs are generated for as little as 0.01 seconds. Because of this, the timing and penetration of the weld is critical. To create a successful weld, you need to correctly calibrate your tool. This calibration depends on the material you’re welding to, the dimensions of the stud, and the material of the stud.
  4. Position: To create a successful weld and a clean, well-made product, you need to know exactly where you’ll place the weld point. Even a millimeter shift can affect the quality of your welded product. Many welders will mark the point of the weld with a punch mark in the center of the area of the weld, but even this can be inaccurate because, if the punch is too deep, you can shorten the stud length by as much as 50%.
  5. Materials: Welding materials are also key in creating a successful weld. This includes the surface material, any surface plating or coatings, the weld materials, and how the physical properties will react to a weld. Some materials, like high-carbon steel, are too hard to penetrate with a common CD welding stud.

 

For any stud welding process, these kinds of factors and the properties of the materials and tools you’ll use are important. To learn more about CD and drawn arc welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

 

Contact versus Gap CD Stud Welding

Stud welding is a manufacturing operation that is highly saturated in use across industries. Not only does stud welding provide fast, strong fastening systems, but it also creates clean, consistent connection points for a variety of stud and surface materials. You can find everything you need regarding tools, studs, pins, and other welding accessories at Northland Fastening Systems (NFS). In addition to a comprehensive selection of products, NFS also offers expert guidance via the knowledge of our skilled stud-welding technicians. From drawn arc to capacitor stud (CD) stud welding, NFS has the supplies and service that production teams of any size need to get their projects completed quickly and effectively.

 

Drawn arc stud welding is an excellent option for large-scale welding of heavy-duty studs on a variety of steels and other metals, but CD stud welding may be an even better option for welders working quickly with smaller dimension studs on surfaces that need to look clean.

 

CD stud welding uses a quick-draw welding tool that is either a handheld gun or an automated production tip. There are two types that can be used, depending on the materials being welded together and the production speed needed.

 

  • Contact CD Stud Welding: This is a slightly more common type of CD stud welding that physically presses the stud against the surface material while an electrical current heats the two metals. A stud is inserted on the tip of the welding tool and positioned against the flat base surface. This allows the electrical current to flow through the welding tool to the surface material, heating and rendering molten metal beneath the stud. The current also vaporizes the tip of the stud, allowing it to stick to the molten surface and cool to form a strong fastened connection. This process typically occurs in just 0.012 seconds. Contact welding is ideal for steels and other metals that have a slightly higher melting point than others.
  • Gap CD Stud Welding: Gap CD Stud Welding involves a different gun and the use of a magnetic coil, or solenoid, that activates and lifts the stud away from the workpiece. It still draws an arc and plunges back into the weld pool under significantly less spring pressure than contact stud welding. This is beneficial for aluminum and stainless steel where it’s critical to not leave a mark on the backside of the workpiece. We often see this with sign manufacturers who want a clean appearance.

 

Whether you are using contact or gap CD stud welding as a primary fastening system at your worksite, NFS has what you need to get the job done. Contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 to learn more about stud welding supplies. Request a quote online to get started with us today.

Time, Pressure, Current, and Other Specifications for CD Stud Welding

There are several types of stud welding used in a wide range of manufacturing procedures. The use of CD stud welding as a fast, clean, and strong fastening system is a highly effective technique for rapid fastening of a broad variety of structures from lightweight assemblies to composite material construction.

 

If you’re using CD stud welding as a primary fastening system for any size project, you can find studs in a wide variety of dimensions, including custom sizes, stud welding tools for rent or purchase, all the accessories you might need, and our own stud welding technicians’ expertise at Northland Fastening Systems today.

 

Utilizing CD stud welding as a primary fastening system for your construction procedures can be one of the most efficient methods at hand if used correctly. While CD stud welding is a quick, easy way to form strong connections, it also requires specific calibrations depending on the tool, stud dimensions, and materials used. CD welding processes change effectiveness whenever specifications are altered. These specifications include:

 

  • Time of weld: The speed of a CD weld can affect the strength of the weld. If a weld is performed too quickly, it can create a weak connection. If a weld is too long, however, it can produce a weakened connection point with too deep of a penetration and unattractive spattering of molten stud and surface material.
  • Pressure of weld: CD stud welding requires a very specific pressure through the welding gun to provide a perfect connection with a strength greater than stud and surface material alike. Too great a pressure calibration creates a spattering and too deep penetration. Too little pressure provides a weak connection that is not fully formed.
  • Current/power of tool: Just like the time and pressure, a specific electrical current is required to perform a strong weld connection. The current required depends on the materials being welded together and the dimensions of the stud. This is true of the time and pressure needed as well, but the current needed will vary more greatly in direct reliance on the metals used.
  • Materials used: Because time, pressure, and current change based on the materials used, those metals are a critical specification to take into account if you want to create a strong weld connection with a CD tool. Effective CD welding can be used to weld low carbon steel, mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, brass, or alloys specifically formulated for CD stud welding.

 

CD stud welding can be the key to open many manufacturing doors if you have the information you need to determine what studs to use and what to calibrate your tools to. Find our CD welding stud and CD weld pin selection online or contact us to request customized stud dimensions.

 

To learn more about the stud welding processes, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online to get started.

Inspection Practices for CD Stud Welding Quality

Stud welding of all types can be one of the most effective manufacturing operations in a wide range of industries when it is applied correctly. While drawn arc welding is key for large-scale construction with heavier studs, capacitor discharge (CD) stud welding is an excellent operation for clean, rapid welds used in lightweight construction or smaller assemblies. With Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), you can find studs for drawn arc and CD stud welding in all dimensions, a comprehensive selection of welding tools for rent or purchase, complete welding accessories, and the expertise of our skilled welding technicians. An important part of any stud-welding operation that our technicians can provide guidance and support for is the weld inspection process.

 

The weld inspection process for CD stud welding can take several steps depending on factors of the weld condition, the stud dimensions, and the materials used. The two primary methods of inspecting the quality of a CD weld connection are visual and mechanical diagnostics.

 

Visual Diagnostics: To inspect a CD weld visually, there are several conditions a welder should look for. First, if there is any splattering of the metal, the weld may be weakened due to a too-hot weld. Next, look for a lack of metal melted around the base of the stud. Too little metal shows the weld was cold. Additionally, if there is any reverse-side marking on the component opposite the weld, there may have been too much pressure or heat during the weld. Finally, if the stud is indented or sunk into a divot in the base material, the stud is weakened by too much pressure or heat in the weld.

 

Mechanical Diagnostics: Mechanical inspections depend entirely on several aspects of the weld. This includes the stud dimensions, the material of the stud, the material of the base material, the thread size of the stud, the time and pressure of the weld operation, and the heat/voltage of the welding tool. To determine the yield load, ultimate tensile load, yield torque, ultimate torque, and shear strength of any CD weld, all the preceding listed aspects of the weld must be taken into consideration.

 

To perform a weld successfully with long-term reliability, both visual and mechanical inspection practices must be put in place in your production process. With the comprehensive supply of CD stud welding and drawn arc stud welding tools Northland Fastening Systems has available, you can implement stud welding into your operations. Contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 today, or request a quote online to get started with us today.

Avoiding Common Defects with CD Stud Welding

Stud welding is an operation that many industries utilize because of its diverse benefits to a wide range of production processes. While drawn arc stud welding is key for heavy-duty studs, load-bearing composite building, and other large-scale construction, CD stud welding has an equal frequency of use in different types of construction.

 

If you’re using CD stud welding in your production process, you will gain the benefits of rapid, economical, low-energy welding that provides a clean weld with no reverse-side marking. With the help of Northland Fastening Systems technical support and our selection of all the tools, studs, pins, and accessories you might need for CD stud welding, you can get your job done with ease and quality.

 

CD stud welding is a form of resistance welding, unlike drawn arc welding. Arc welding is a fusion welding process that often requires a filler material and frequently leaves a slag from the flux used that has to be cleaned to finish the product. CD stud welding doesn’t require a filler material and it leaves a clean weld that won’t need finishing after the weld is done.

 

When done correctly, CD stud welding is a fast and easy process that leaves a pristine, strong weld. However, there are some defects that can occur when CD stud welding is not performed accurately or with the right materials:

 

  • Spread of molten metal from the weld site is a common issue when weld pressure is too low, the current is too high, or the weld is timed incorrectly. Molten metal expulsion can also be evidence of surface contamination.
  • Spattering of metal is another sign of too high a current. It creates excess heat that can cause explosive spray and loss of metal at the weld site, weakening the weld overall.
  • Cracked weld connections are a clear alert to a weak weld. These cracks often occur due to lack of pressure during the weld leading to an incomplete or porous connection. Inadequate pressure during the weld leads to a low tensile strength at the connection point.
  • Indentations at the weld site are another result of incorrect pressure and/or current. With too much pressure, the current decreases and a poor weld connection is formed because of the low pressure. Welding studs indented into surface material even slightly are a sign of too high of pressure and too low of current/temperature.
  • Misshapen weld spots are also a common defect with incorrectly performed CD stud welding. A strong, accurate weld should have a perfectly circular weld mark. Bloated, smushed, or otherwise misshapen weld spots are a result of contamination or misaligned electrodes in the welding tool.

 

These defects can be easily avoided when you choose to work with NFS products and take advantage of our technicians’ expertise whenever questions arise. To learn more about our CD stud welding products and other stud welding supplies, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 today. Request a quote online to get started on your stud welding project now.

 

Application of Shear Connectors in Thru-Deck Stud Welding

Stud welding is a versatile process with many industrial applications. While stud welding is often primarily used in exterior or visible interior installations, it is also a key operation for large-scale construction. Shear connectors and other anchor bar systems provide necessary strengthening of a structure and critical support against stresses. If you are fabricating a system with metal decking or other weld-thru metal structures, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) can provide the shear connectors, anchor bars, welding tools, and any other studs or accessories you need to get the job done. When it comes to thru-deck stud welding operations, NFS offers the technical support and tools needed.

 

Composite construction applications like thru-deck welding requires careful consideration of each material used in the process and understanding of the process itself. When it comes to the composite building of structural beams, galvanized decking, and concrete, shear connectors welding studs are key for long-term structural integrity.

 

The included image shows a three-dimensional cross section of a weld-thru decking application. The shear connecter studs welded directly through the galvanized decking material fasten it to steel I-beams. A rebar webbing is overlaid for support and flexibility of the final layer of concrete finishing the composite system. As a complete decking system, this composite structure can be utilized in a range of applications, but is primarily used in the construction of multilevel buildings with steel beam skeletons.

 

The use of shear connector welding studs is critical in this type of composite construction system. If you are working with thru-deck weld construction processes, NFS can provide comprehensive shear connectors in varying dimensions, including stud diameter and length.

 

For general-purpose thru-deck composite welding, our shear connector studs have a minimum tensile strength of 61,000 psi (420 MPa) and a minimum yield strength of 49,000 psi (340 MPa). For shear connectors that will be used in composite beam construction like the processes used in multilevel buildings, our specialized studs have a minimum tensile strength of 65,000 psi (450 MPa) and a minimum yield strength of 51,000 psi (350 MPa). NFS also offers custom lengths for both types of shear connectors with any of our available diameter.

 

Not only do the connector studs fasten galvanized decking to structural beams, they are also key in shear load bearing. The minimum tensile and yield strength of each stud works together to support entire buildings upward of 100 stories. The system of a composite beam construction increases the flex range and support strength of the building as a whole, which allows it to react to movements of the earth plates, the wind, and other natural elements; weight inside the building; and changes in molecular size with temperature shifts. In every composite structure, shear connectors are key components.

 

To learn more about weld-thru decking and the use of stud welding in composite construction, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 today, or request a quote online to get started with us today.

 

 

Installing Insulation Sheeting Using Welding Studs

The use of various forms of insulation is extremely prevalent across industries. Not only is insulation used to control temperatures inside buildings and protect pipes from freezing in cold winter months, it’s also used extensively in many other applications. This includes everything from thermal power stations to electrical systems, mechanical systems, climate-controlled warehousing, fireproofing, automobiles, planes, spacecraft, protection against corrosion, and more.

 

Because the most effective installation method for the majority of insulations is stud welding, insulation and construction are key industries Northland Fastening System serves. We provide all the welding studs, welding units, stud welding guns, and accessories you need to complete your project.

 

Using CD stud welding processes to install insulation is the most effective method of attachment. The process of stud welding creates a connection point with no reverse side marking and stronger than the stud and base material itself. It also streamlines and speeds up the installation process, providing a rapid, short cycle install of insulation or fireproof sheeting.

 

How it works: Insulation sheeting can be installed with CD stud welding using pins that can be inserted through the insulating material and welded to the base material in a short cycle process. The tip of the pin is welded to the base material while cupped or flat heads hold down the insulation material. This welding process is a one-step system that allows quick and effective insulation sheeting attachment to base metal materials.

 

Applications: CD welding installation of insulation sheeting can be applied in any situation where the base material is a weldable metal such as steel, aluminum, or brass. This includes insulation for HVAC ducts, pipes, buildings, incinerators, equipment exposed to fire, plane cabins, spacecrafts, water towers, warehouses, and much more. Steel structures can be insulated against corrosion and temperatures up to 1,250º C (2,282º F) using stud welding in the installation process.

 

Benefits: In all applications of stud welding, there are many operational benefits. The process improves efficiency and cuts costs because it can be performed quickly with low energy use. Studs also create clean, strong bonds with conservative use of materials and long-term effectiveness. Installing insulation with stud welding streamlines the process, forms a lasting bond, and is visually clean and professional.

 

Get Welding Studs and Other Equipment for Your Next Project

If you need to install insulation or fire-resistant sheeting, stud welding is the way to go. To learn more about applications of stud welding or to get started on your project with the best welding studs, tools, and accessories, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

General Applications of Drawn Arc and CD Stud Welding

Stud welding is one of the most versatile manufacturing operations for small to large scale construction. Though it was originally developed for use in shipbuilding of various types of vessels, it has grown in application to be used in many manufacturing industries worldwide. Its use in so many industries has helped to streamline and speed up the production process while improving the quality and long-term reliability of components and full assemblies.

 

If you are using stud welding in your fabrication processes, Northland Fastening Systems is your one-stop-shop for all the tools, studs, and accessories you need to get the job done. Our team of experts can guide you through the process of selecting the right specifications of studs, welding units, and any other items needed.

 

Because stud welding is such a versatile operation providing a connection point between two metals that is stronger than the metals themselves, it is used in an increasingly wide range of applications. Broadly speaking, these applications include the following:

 

  • Structural Construction: This includes buildings, bridges, water towers, elevators, mining structures, tunnels, overpasses, facades, highways, window frames, doors, and much more.
  • Automotive Construction: Stud welding is used extensively in the construction of all types of vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, SUVs, recreational vehicles, transport vehicles, fork trucks, military vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft, farm machinery, trains, cable cars, excavation vehicles, and much more.
  • Shipbuilding: Many components of ships of all types are fabricated using stud welding. This includes flooring, ceilings, walkways, kitchens, exterior hulling, lifeboats, insulation, food prep stations, and more.
  • Sheet Metal Construction: Various cabinets, enclosures, and other sheet metal products are made using stud welding for clean connection points with no reverse side marking. This includes electrical enclosures, signs, deposit boxes, mail containers, hinges, hand tools, grills, office products, and more.
  • Appliance Construction: Domestic and commercial appliances are also made using stud welding operations. This includes ovens, stoves, refrigerators, ranges, dishwashers, dryers, stereos, financial processors, vending machines, freezers, ice machines, cookware, and much more.
  • Climate Control System Construction: Components of quality HVAC and other climate control systems are also fabricated using stud welding including ducts, vents, dehumidifiers, fans, insulation, and more.
  • Sound-Proofing Construction: The construction of soundproof rooms and systems with stud welding are key to a wide range of applications. This includes recording booths, equipment testing rooms, ducting, building facades, roads, and more.
  • Power Generator Construction: Any type of energy generator needs a specialized system to isolate and transmit that power. Stud welding is key in the fabrication of transformers, reactors, boilers, nuclear systems, steam generators, coal systems, refractories, incinerators, and more.

 

Stud welding is also useful in the installation of insulation against heat, cold, fire, weather, and other harsh elements for a wide range of structures and objects.

 

To learn more about the applications of stud welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today. To get started on your next project, request a quote online or give us a call.

Troubleshooting Connection Points for CD Stud Welding

While CD stud welding is a fairly simple process to the outside observer, the science, physics, and engineering behind it are complex. Very specific temperatures and times must be applied to the stud and weld surface for a connection point to be successful. When performed correctly, in fact, a CD stud weld connection point will be stronger than the stud itself. To help you get the job done quickly and efficiently with quality results, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) provides comprehensive stud welding supplies and services, including welding studs of varying dimensions and thread sizing, stud welding tools for rent and purchase, and a variety of welding accessories for CD stud welding.

 

NFS technical service and stud welding tool manufacturers provide rich information about the calibration of stud weld equipment and the pairing of welding materials. However, if you are having difficulties calibrating your equipment and are seeing poor results, there are basic troubleshooting procedures you can easily perform.

 

For example, troubleshooting a poor weld connection starts with testing for weld failure.

 

Weld Failure

A successful stud weld connection point is stronger than the stud itself. Because of this, placing stress on both the stud and connection point at the same time to the point of failure can tell you the condition and accuracy of the weld. Ideally, the stud will fail before the weld point because it should be weaker (as seen at 2:18 in our demonstration of the HBS Visar 650). If the weld connection fails at all, the weld connection was unsuccessful. This failure could occur for several reasons, including:

 

  • Cold Weld: CD stud welding procedures have to meet a specific temperature and that temperature has to be applied for a specific period of time. The temperatures and times vary depending on the size and material of the stud as well as the weld surface material. It becomes very clear, however, that a weld was too cold (too low of a temperature, too short of a weld time, or both) if it fails in a stress test. Visually, you can also see if a weld was too cold if the melted area around the stud isn’t an acceptable 360º deep radius.

 

  • Hot Weld: A weld connection point can also fail because of a hot weld if the time or temperature are applied in excess (or if excess heat is applied very quickly). The most obvious sign of a hot weld is a burn-through, which manifests as any distortion to the reverse side of the base material. Even the slightest distortion can compromise the quality of a weld. Another sign of less dramatic hot welds is the splash size of the stud around its base at the weld point. A wide or messy splash of cooled molten metal are a common sign of a hot weld that will fail under stress.

 

To learn more about the potential failures and troubleshooting CD stud welding, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.