Strength of Complete Fusion in the Stud Welding Process

Since its invention in the early 1900s, stud welding has proven to be an exceptionally useful tool for a wide range of industries. From construction to electronics, stud welding offers a fastening system that connects metals with strong, rapid, and clean operations. When applied correctly, stud welded connections are stronger than the stud and base material put together. In fact, one of the quickest ways to test the accuracy of a weld is by seeing if the stud will fail in a bend test before the connection point fails. If you are working with stud welding, you know the benefits it provides to many manufacturing processes. Stud welding is quick, cost-effective, and powerful. At Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), we provide a complete range of supplies for the drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), and short cycle stud welding process. This includes studs for each type of welding, tools for rent and purchase, welding accessories, and even repairs for most welding equipment.

Stud Welding Process

One of the reasons why the stud welding process is advantageous for so many industries is because of the strength a full fusion weld point provides. Stud welding operations completely fuse stud materials to surface materials. This fusion can be done with a variety of metals, including steel, aluminum, and even copper.

What Is Complete Fusion?

Complete fusion requires both metals to reach melting temperatures. Molten metals will fuse together at the weld point and create a complete connection between parts. All layers of stud and surface material should be molten in order to create complete fusion. Because of this requirement for deep penetration, stud lengths will shorten a specified amount when installed, depending on material and weld types.

A homogenous weld point that is completely fused will be clean with no spatter or puddles. Complete fusion eliminates the risk of a cold or porous weld that will likely fail. Any incorrect applications that have incomplete fusion can be revealed with testing. Incomplete fusion issues can be prevented by accurately calibrating welding equipment, using the right power, and performing a weld in the correct duration and positioning. With drawn arc welding, ceramic ferrules and shielding gas also help technicians achieve complete fusion in the welds.


For complete fusion through paint, annealing, and other surface treatments, technicians should adjust accordingly and use grounding clamps on the job site. In facilities where automated stud welding systems are integrated into a production line, complete fusion results are often built into the equipment. Automation parameters for complete fusion can be adjusted when stud dimensions, materials, and other specifications are changed.

If you are working with any kind of stud welding process in any industry, and are looking for supplies, equipment, and more, we can help. Contact NFS at (651) 730-7770. You can also request a quote online to get started with us today.

Power Supply Classifications for the Stud Welding Process

Welding with an electrically generated arcing current was first developed in the late 1800s by several British, Russian, and American inventors. In 1887, Russian inventor Nikolay Benardos presented the first arc welding system with a carbon electrode. The same year, another inventor, French Auguste de Méritens, also developed a carbon arc welder. Over the next 130 years, new technologies for welding would be invented and developed to the advanced state-of-the-art systems they are today. Modern metal welding hosts an umbrella of operations from gas metal arc welding (GMAW) to electron beam welding (EBW). Stud welding is also a commonplace welding operation that is used across industries. If you are working with a drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), or short cycle stud welding process, you can find all the supplies you need at Northland Fastening Systems (NFS). NFS provides a complete selection of welding equipment, including tools for rent or purchase, welding studs, accessories, and even repairs for most models.

Stud Welding Process

Stud welding machines can utilize either AC or DC power supplies depending on the welding application and the facilities. The power source for any stud welding process can be one of three general designs: transformers, generators, or inverters.


Using electricity from main utilities, transformers convert moderate electrical currents and voltage into high current and low voltage. Generally that conversion takes 110–240 V supplies to around 17-45 V with anywhere between 55 and 590 amp. Transformers are less costly than other power supplies, but they can only be used within a facility because of their large size.


For job-site welding with portable welders, a generator is often the best choice for power conversion. These designs convert mechanical energy into electrical energy with an electric or internal combustion motor. Generators are also called alternators because they convert that energy from mechanical to electrical to reach the same voltage step-down that transformers provide.

Inverters In the Stud Welding Process

Inverters are a newer power source for welding units because they use high-power semiconductors that have only recently been adapted into wider technologies. These systems take main utility AC and change it to DC, then they invert that DC power to step-down the voltage and change the current to the calibrated weld requirements. The most significant feature of inverters is that they can be adjusted with software systems thanks to their use of semiconductor chips.

Within these categories of transformers, generators, and inverters, there are many variations that can be used as power supplies for stud welding. Each type of stud welding and welding overall will require different calibrations of voltage and current that can be achieved with these power supply designs.

If you are in need of any supplies for your stud welding process, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770. You can also request a quote online to get started with us today.

Our Favorite Automated Production Welding Equipment

Manually operated stud welding tools are practical and convenient for many applications across industries. Portable welding equipment that can be quickly set up on job sites are key for many operations in the construction industry, such as thru-deck stud welding, composite construction, and sheet metal fabrication. While handheld stud welding tools have many uses, automated production welders also have an important part in the manufacturing world. Automated equipment may have a limited flexibility in terms of different operations it can perform, but for the stud installments it can do, it beats handheld tools in speed and consistency. Some automated systems can even weld upward of 40 studs a minute. While a weld done with a handheld gun usually takes less than 1 second to connect, the time spent in reloading the gun and positioning a new stud means manual welding is much slower than automated welding. For either type of stud welding, you can find everything you need at Northland Fastening Systems (NFS). We provide a complete supply of studs, accessories, tools, and other welding equipment. We also offer repair services for most welding models.

Welding Equipment

Automated welding equipment typically is installed in a facility where it becomes part of a complete production line. Production welders perform hundreds to thousands of rapid stud installments with precision over extended periods of time. Because they get such heavy use, production welders are durable and intelligent. Our automated tools are computer numerical control (CNC) machines with programmable software direction systems.

Favorite automated production welders

CPW 0604: The CPW 0604 performs capacitor discharge (CD), drawn arc, and short cycle welding operations. It can work in a welding range of 600 x 400 x 120 mm and can install studs with diameters of 3-8 mm. With a 9″ touchscreen display, it’s easy to calibrate and adjust the high performance PLC IEC 61131-3 controller. This model can weld up to 30 studs per minute and has an axis movement speed of 25 m per minute along the X and Y axes and 20 m per minute on the Z axis. The single welding head is automatically fed with up to three different stud lengths at a time. The software is user friendly and multilingual, and the unit is compact for such a high-production machine.

PC-S: The PC-S is another great production welder for all types of stud welding operations. It can be manually fed to a single welding tip or automatically fed for a 30% faster load rate. The working plate is 500 x 375 mm. This machine is especially precise with a positioning tolerance of ± 0.2 mm. Stud diameter capabilities are 3-8 mm and 10-12.7 mm. The PC-S is an advanced welder with a microprocessor controller. It’s a reliable option for any facility that works with high precision production.


For more information about these tools and our other stud welding equipment, contact NFS at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.