Glossary of Terms for Stud Welding

For any builders, fabricators, or manufacturers who are just beginning to use stud welding operations as a tool in their work, there is a lot to learn. While stud welding appears to be a relatively simple, straightforward operation, there are many complexities about the varying types of processes. At Northland Fastening Systems, we offer a comprehensive supply of stud welding tools, studs, and accessories in addition to our expert technical support services. If you are a beginner or even an experienced stud welder, our team of skilled service technicians can provide the support and tools that you need to get the job done.


If you are just beginning to work with stud welding tools and processes, it’s important to understand the basic terms used to describe aspects of the operation. Some of the most important, widely used terms in the stud welding industry include:


  1. Stud: Any fastener used in the stud welding process. This includes pins, shear connectors, and bar anchors as well as standard studs. Studs can be made from steel, aluminum, brass, copper, or related alloys.
  2. Gun: The hand-operated tool used by the technician performing the weld. Studs are inserted in the tip of the gun and applied to the surface that it will be welded to.
  3. Controller: The electrical unit controlling the supply of voltage to the welding gun or welding tip. The controller used depends on the type of welding process, the stud dimensions, and the material to be welded to.
  4. Parent material: The surface material that the stud will be welded to. This is also called the “workpiece.” If done correctly, the bond between the stud and the parent material will be much stronger than the stud or parent material alone.
  5. Capacitor discharge (CD): A type of stud welding process that uses electrical discharge heat to connect the stud to the parent material. CD stud welding is fast, cost-effective, and clean.
  6. Drawn arc: Another common type of stud welding. The process uses an arcing current to heat the stud inside a ceramic ferrule while it is held against the parent material. This process is suited for welding heavy-duty studs with larger diameters.
  7. Ceramic ferrule: A ceramic containment piece for the stud used in a drawn arc process. It serves to regulate the weld temperature and prevent the molten metal from moving outside a desired range.
  8. Chuck: A component that holds a stud in the tip of the welding gun during the CD stud welding process.
  9. Flux: An aluminum coating on the tip of a drawn arc welding stud. It improves the ignition and de-oxidizes the pooling of the weld point.


There are many other terms used for different components of various welding processes, but this list covers the basic vocabulary used in most stud welding operations. To learn more about stud welding and the tools or terms used, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.






What Do Nelson® Studs, Jet Skis, and Chapstick Have in Common?


Nelson® Studs manufactures and supplies headed anchor and shear connector studs. What could they possibly have in common with jet skis and chapstick?


Consider this: when one of our customers calls us and needs headed anchors or shear connectors, they often simply ask for Nelson® studs. It seems that Nelson® studs have become synonymous with those studs in the industry.


This process where a brand name becomes synonymous with the product isn’t that uncommon. It’s called a “generic trademark” and you might be surprised by the wide range of products that are actually brand names, including jet skis and chapstick. (Or, rather, Jet Skis and Chapstick.)


While it could sound like a great thing for your product to be so widely known, some companies resist this process. For example, Google very actively attempts to prevent the use of the word “to google” to mean “search on the internet.” They do so to maintain ownership of the Google trademark.


Other generic trademark examples include Kleenex, Band-Aid, Popsicle, Q-Tips—even Seeing Eye Dog! That’s how we get from Nelson® Studs to Jet Skis and Chapstick. Because of their long history in the industry, Nelson® Studs have become synonymous with headed anchor and shear connector studs.


But just like there are multiple manufacturers of “personal watercraft” (i.e., Jet Skis) and many makers of “lip balm” (i.e., Chapstick), there are many quality manufacturers and brands of headed anchor and shear connector studs.


Northland Fastening Systems offers a wide stock of headed anchors, shear connectors, and many other studs for projects big and small. Our studs get the job done right, just like Nelson® studs. Custom lengths are available, and customers can take advantage of additional services like professional repairs, equipment rentals, and expert advice for the application of stud welding in your project.


So when you need headed anchors or shear connectors, don’t leap to the global brand first. Get in touch with Northland Fastening Systems!

To learn more about all our welding studs and services, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770, or get started with us today and request a quote online.



Uses and Benefits of Automated Stud Welding Equipment

Stud welding is a relatively new manufacturing operation in comparison with other welding formats that have been used as far back as the Bronze Age. Since its beginnings in the Industrial Revolution and its rise in popularity for shipbuilding in WWII, stud welding has rapidly advanced technologically. Today, stud welding is used for a broad range of manufacturing applications, from large-scale structural construction to complex, food-grade equipment. Because of its widespread use, there are many applications where stud welding operations can be automated for results that are higher quality, more precise, and faster. With the help of Northland Fastening Systems expert technicians, you can integrate automation into your operations with our selection of state-of-the-art automated welding equipment and comprehensive welding studs.


Automation in the stud welding industry is one of the most recent developments that facilities can apply on their operations floor or in the field. Various formats of automated stud welding were developed to improve production in many ways with the benefits it provides.



Automated stud welding provides many benefits to fabricators. Broadly speaking, this includes:

  • Efficiency
  • Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Cost Reduction

If your volume of production has recently increased, integrating automation into your facilities is an investment that will pay itself off quickly as it saves your welders the time, energy, and cost of keeping up with your production demands. Manufacturers using stud welding for a range of applications can almost always benefit from the implementation of automated welding equipment.


How It Works

Automation can be used in a factory setting or as a portable device with both automatic hand-held welding guns and CNC welding heads. The stud is inserted into the gun manually or with an automatic feeder, and the welding surface is processed on an automatic production line. For large-scale rapid welding, robotic welding systems are the most effective with computer-controlled precision and a fully automated production line.

Systems like our MPW 10102010 are highly effective when it comes to speeding up the production process and increasing volume. This system can perform up to 40 welds per minute using short cycle drawn arc welding with up to three welding heads operating simultaneously. It can also perform simple milling tasks for finishing assemblies or machining components.

For a more portable automated application, our handheld PAH-1 welding gun is a highly effective stud welding tool. Using CD, short cycle drawn arc, contact, or gap welding, this gun is a lightweight automation option for welding a variety of materials. This gun is especially effective in welding sheeting as thin as 0.5 mm.


Explore our comprehensive collection of automation products and other stud welding equipment options, or shop from our wide range of welding studs online. To learn more about automation in the welding industry or to get started with NFS for all your welding equipment and studs today, contact us at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Benefits of ISO 9001:2015 Certification for Providers of Stud Welding Supplies and Services

Northland Fastening Systems is a provider of high-quality stud welding tools, supplies, and accessories for a comprehensive range of stud welding applications. We offer studs in all dimensions, and we can provide custom studs on request. Our welding units are available for rent or purchase, and our welding accessories meet a wide variety of needs for projects big and small.


We also have a team of skilled, knowledgeable stud welding technicians well equipped to perform complete stud welding services both in the field and in-house. With the help of our expert technicians and our comprehensive equipment and facilities, we can help you finish a stud welding job with efficiency, quality, and long-term effectiveness.


Our quality management system for our stud welding services and facilities are ISO 9001:2015 certified. When a facility and operational process has an ISO (International Organization for Standardization) certification, it means the system has met these worldwide standards for the consistency of quality work, the continued adherence to ISO standards, the assessment of worker safety and environmental impact, and the continued improvement of practices.


When you partner with NFS for stud welding supplies and services, you gain the advantage of our ISO certification and all the benefits it provides, including:


  • Improved Quality: Meeting the standards an ISO certification requires means we have to strive continuously to provide the highest quality possible. This applies to our stud welding services, welding units, welding studs used, project management practices, safety gear, and more. Our own improved quality affects the quality of all our customers’ work in turn.
  • Improved Efficiency: As a result of improved quality at all stages, our stud welding technicians are able to improve the efficiency of your production as a whole. This means we can reduce waste, improve environmental impacts, streamline the welding and assembly process, and speed up your work. Our improved efficiency also improves efficiency for the customer down the line.
  • Improved Safety: To maintain our certification, we’re continually searching for ways to improve our safety practices in the workplace and in the products we sell and use. The protection of our workers, the improvement of our maintenance programs, and the development of project scheduling and record keeping all work together to advance our safety practices. This means our relationship with the customer and the services/products we provide all see improvements.
  • Continual Improvement: With our quality, efficiency, and safety practices all seeing improvements with continued adherence to ISO certification standards, our services and products improve together over time. NFS is committed to finding ways to continually improve every aspect of our stud welding services in addition to meeting each advancement in ISO certification requirements.


To learn more about our ISO certification and the benefits it offers, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online to get started on your stud welding today.

Breaking Down the Technical Numbers of Welding Studs

At Northland Fastening Systems (NFS), we’re dedicated to providing a comprehensive supply of welding studs, stud welding tools, and our own expertise and services. We understand that stud welding is used for an incredibly wide range of fabrication purposes, and each application requires a specific set of tools and studs to accurately complete the job. Because of this, we offer studs meeting all your needs for dimension, material, length, threading, and more. NFS also provides custom stud specifications and works directly with our customers to supply the studs they need. When it comes to welding studs and welding tools, NFS is your one-stop-shop for the services you need.


The range of different welding studs is broad and it can be difficult to choose the exact specifications you need. To make things more complicated, the technical numbers of welding studs are hard to unpack. Those who have worked in the stud welding industry have a better understanding of stud part numbers, but for others less familiar, a breakdown of this information can be useful.


The part number of any kind of stud follows the same general sequence that will give you the key to the majority of studs you may encounter. Using a sizing of this drawn arc welding stud as an example, you can see how the NFS version of that sequence operates:


The part number is: ARC MS FT 006 07


ARC: This indicates that the stud is designed for use in drawn arc stud welding

MS: This tells you the part is made from mild steel

FT: This indicates the stud is fully-threaded.

006: This refers to the threading, which in this case is ¼-20

07: This indicates the stud length, which in this case is 1⅛”


Understanding the system of part numbers is important, but understanding the sizing numbers themselves is also key.


Thread Sizes: The numerical sizing of threads is based on a diameter and per-inch system. In the case of the listed drawn arc welding stud, the ¼-20 means there are 20 threads per inch on a ¼” nominal diameter. The distance between each thread is the reciprocal of the thread-per-inch, so for this stud, the distance between threads is 1/20 of an inch.


Lengths: Thread lengths are a simpler system. The stud length is 1⅛ inches. This length is listed as before it is welded. Because the stud diameter in this case is less than ½”, the length will be about ⅛” shorter after the weld. For studs with diameter of ⅝” to ⅞” the post-weld length will be about 3/16” shorter, and 1” diameters and above will have a post-weld length that is about ¼” shorter.


The flexibility of sizing for welding studs is a broad one, but NFS can help you determine exactly what you need. To learn more about welding stud sizes and our services, contact us at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

The Flexibility and Quality of Stud Welding

Centuries ago, forge welding was developed and used for many manufacturing applications. In the late 19th Century, arc welding was developed as electricity became standard throughout manufacturing industries. All welding formats quickly advanced during the world wars as demand for fast, cost-effective attachment methods grew immensely. After WWII, many additional welding techniques were developed, including capacitor discharge (CD) welding.

Since the expansion beyond forge welding in the late 1800s, stud welding has remained a constant in the welding world, developing alongside other welding applications. Historically, stud welding was used primarily for shipbuilding, but because of its versatility and adaptability, it is used in a wide range of global industries today.


Northland Fastening Systems is committed to providing every aspect of services and tools needed to open the doors to everything stud welding can do with its flexibility and quality results. From tools and accessories to our own stud welding services, NFS is your one-stop-shop for all the supplies you need to complete any project, big or small.


Access to a wide range of stud welding supplies is critical because of the versatility of its manufacturing applications. In fact, stud welding is one of the most flexible welding operations used in any given industry, and it provides a clean, quality weld point that is even stronger than the materials welded together. This flexibility is due to several factors, including:


  • Adaptability: Stud welding units can be adjusted to weld studs made from different materials to a wide range of surface metals. Studs themselves come in a range of dimensions including diameter, length, and thread variations. The shape of the stud is adaptable, and several additional options are available for stud properties. Overall stud welding can be used in almost any operation where studded surfaces or other forms of stud connection are necessary.
  • High-speed: Stud welding cuts the time of other stud connection methods in half, making it one of the fastest manufacturing operations available. Handheld stud welders can perform up to 20 welds per minute when used manually, and some automated systems can perform upwards of 60 welds per minute.
  • Maneuverability: Stud welding guns are small, moveable tools that can be used in cramped or difficult-to-reach spaces. Additionally, welders only need access to one side of the weld point, making surface welding faster and more easily maneuvered.
  • Portability: Stud welding units are lightweight in comparison to other welding equipment. Units can be moved with ease between worksites, and many units are designed specifically for constant movement on the job.
  • Weld results: Stud welding is one of the cleanest welding operations available to any industry. Stud welders create a clean, one-sided weld point without holes, residue, or marking. This clean weld improves the strength and extends the lifetime of the weld point and the product overall.


Contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online to get your next project started right!


Technical Specifications and the Engineering of Stud Welding

As one of the most versatile and widely used fastening systems, stud welding is an invaluable operation for a broad range of manufacturing industries. Because of its wide range of uses, stud welding has to meet a large number of engineering specifications, such as sizing, strength, materials, format, and process specifications. For any stud-welding project specifications, Northland Fastening Systems provides services and offers equipment, studs, accessories, and everything you need to get the job done.


Stud welding can be performed with drawn arc welding or CD welding units that vary in sizes, portability, and capability. Though both drawn arc and CD welding are rapid operations that provide a weld connection stronger than the stud and surface material combined, they differ in several ways when it comes to the engineering specifications.


Drawn Arc Stud Welding

  1. Materials used:
    1. Low-carbon steel with tensile strength of 60,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 50,000 psi minimum, and a 20% minimum elongation in 2 inches. When annealed, the tensile strength becomes 50,000 psi, yield becomes 35,000 psi, and elongation becomes 25%.
    2. Stainless steel with tensile strength of 85,000 psi minimum, a yield strength of 40,000 psi minimum, and a 45% minimum elongation in 2 inches.
  2. Stud fastening torques:
    1. For low-carbon steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 17.8 and 2831 lbs per inch.
    2. For stainless steel with studs ranging from 8-32 to 1”-8: between 19.8 and 3440 lbs per inch.


CD Stud Welding

CD welding studs use a variety of materials from steel to brass. Each stud material provides a successful weld that is dependent on the base material. Some are more suited to a base material than others. For example:

  1. Mild steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to other mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steels and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  2. Stainless steel:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to common aluminum alloys
  3. Aluminum:
    1. Excellent when welded to die-cast zinc alloys and common aluminum alloys
    2. Cannot be welded to mild steels, galvanized sheet materials, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, or electrolytic copper
  4. Brass:
    1. Excellent when welded to mild steels, structural steel, stainless steel, and lead-free brass, rolled copper, and electrolytic copper
    2. Good when welded to medium-carbon steel and die-cast zinc alloys
    3. Cannot be welded to galvanized sheet materials and common aluminum alloys


Learn more about engineering specifications in the stud welding industry with Northland Fastening Systems. To get started with us today, call (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Benefits of Copper Plated Studs for CD Stud Welding

Copper is a unique metal in many ways, from its rich coloring and conductivity to its resistance to corrosion, despite a quick oxidizing of the outer layer. Exposed to tarnishing conditions, the warm orange-brown of copper eventually becomes the green patina many sculptors and builders desire. In addition to its range of cosmetic uses, copper is also highly useful for many industrial and otherwise practical applications.

Because of its electrical conductivity, copper wiring and other components are frequently used in electronic applications, but it’s also used extensively for specific manufacturing purposes. For example, Northland Fastening Systems uses copper plating for many studs used in high-quality CD stud welding and offers copper plated studs for sale ranging in length, diameter, and threading.

CD stud welding is a highly effective manufacturing process for clean, strong, rapidly-made connection points between the stud and the base surface. Not only is CD stud welding well-suited to fabricating food service equipment, electrical enclosures, construction welding, and much more, it’s also widespread in shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, and countless other types of large-scale construction. Copper plated studs are frequently beneficial for use in these stud welding operations for several reasons, including:

  • copper’s conductivity provides a clean, highly rapid weld as a plated surface
  • its overall resistance to corrosion in comparison with non-plated steel studs
  • its improved electrical conduction for specific applications
  • its ability to slow or prevent alloyed elements from migrating
  • in some applications, copper plating improves solderability
  • it extends the dimensional tolerance of the stud
  • copper plating can improve the service life of any given weld and stud itself


Copper plating for our CD studs is standard, including studs made from aluminum, mild steel, and brass. Both flanged and non-flanged studs benefit from copper plating in dimensions ranging from:

  • 2-56 to ⅜-16 stud diameter
  • .125 to .437 flange diameter
  • .250 to .500 minimum stud length
  • ⅝ to 2-½ full stud length
  • 4-40 to ⅜ – 16 threading


CD stud welding is an excellent operation for such a wide range of applications that it’s become a constant for many contract manufacturers and construction crews as well as a useful tool for stud welding specialists. Copper plating opens an even wider range for stud welding, and at NFS you get the best of both worlds. In addition to CD stud welding tools for rent and purchase, we offer a comprehensive variety of studs for CD welding, drawn arc welding studs, drawn arc tools, and automation equipment.


To learn more about CD stud welding and copper plated studs, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today or request a quote online.

The Importance of the Stud Welding Process in the U.S. Navy from WWII to Today

For years, the stud welding process has been used for fabrication of all kinds of large-scale construction projects, including a high prevalence and cruciality to the shipbuilding industry. Despite the importance and well-documented use of stud welding in the maritime industry today, it wasn’t always such a highly prominent fabrication process. In fact, it wasn’t until the U.S .Navy’s use of stud welding during World War II (WWII) that the world began to recognize the stud welding process as a superior manufacturing operation for stronger, faster, lighter, and longer-lasting ships. Whether you are a player in the maritime industry or are working on a smaller scale project, Northland Fastening Systems has everything you need to complete the stud welding process from start to finish, including stud welders, studs, accessories, and our own stud welding services.


Stud welding was one of the most important manufacturing processes for shipbuilding and the U.S. Navy in WWII. Although stud welding was commonly used in shipbuilding since the early 1900s, the results were still creating warships, freighters, and other large vessels that were heavy, slow, and required an excess of materials. By the 1930s, the United States realized it needed a strong marine and naval force to protect the country.


In the face of the war and a lackluster maritime presence, the U.S. Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act in 1936, which helped both U.S. merchant ships and the U.S. Navy revolutionize their maritime presence, almost completely thanks to the act’s requirement of improved ship construction. To meet this requirement, a stud welding technique that the American Welding Society and the New York Navy Yard developed in 1930 was vital.


This stud welding technique provided a way to connect wood directly to steel. The new ships built in accordance with the Merchant Maritime Act relied heavily on this technique and other stud welding processes to build ships unparalleled by any other navy at the time. In many ways, stud welding helped the United States and its allies win WWII.


Since the use of stud welding processes in shipbuilding during WWII, naval and merchant vessels have benefited from huge advancements in welding units, welding guns, studs, and other stud welding techniques. Even today, with the range of futuristic manufacturing capabilities, stud welding is a staple for maritime industries.


To learn more about the use of stud welding processes in shipbuilding and many other industries, or to get the supplies you need, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online today.

Suitable Materials for Welding and Finding What You Need with NFS Stud Welding Supplies

Metalwork is one of the most important methods of manufacturing for a wide range of construction and production industries. As a part of metalworking as a whole, stud welding has its own place of import in many types of fabrication. From metal equipment manufacturing of all kinds to large-scale construction, stud welding is utilized in the fabrication of many shapes and sizes. If you are working on a project that requires the use of stud welding for clean, quality building, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) is your one-stop shop for quality stud welding equipment, including tools for rent and purchase, studs fitting all size, thread, and material needs, and stud welding accessories. As a leading industry provider of stud welding supplies locally and globally, NFS has what you need for any project, no matter how complex.


While the material used in welding is most often a steel composite, there is a wide variety of additional alloys that are effective for many welding circumstances. From aluminum to copper, stud welding can be performed with several different quality materials.


Stud Welding Metals


  1. Stainless steel: One of the most commonly used stud materials, stainless steel offers a greater resistance to corrosion. Stainless steel studs are also highly durable and can take many finishing and treatment applications, such as annealing or plating. Both drawn arc and CD stud welding studs can be made from stainless steel.
  2. Mild steel: Also suitable for both drawn arc and CD stud welding, studs made from mild steel alloys are available with a range of properties. Alloys can be made for greater heat resistance, strength, durability, corrosion resistance, acid resistance, flexibility, and more.
  3. Aluminum: Aluminum studs are useful when welding to aluminum bases. NFS offers studs made from aluminum alloys for CD stud welding with options for three different alloy compositions. These alloys vary in properties and provide different fits for different projects.
  4. Brass: CD stud welding can also utilize brass studs. These lead-free brass studs can be welded to a similar brass alloy base or to a lead-free copper alloy base.
  5. Copper: While not typically used as a material for the stud alone, copper can be key when used to plate a CD welding stud. NFS offers copper plating as a standard option for low-carbon steel studs to improve thermal and electrical conductivity from stud to surface.


No matter what project you need stud welding to complete, NFS has the stud welding supplies compatible with your welding tools and the base materials you need to weld. Specifications for materials, length, diameter, threading, flanging, plating, annealing, and more are all available to customize your order to the perfect fit for your fabrication requirements.


To learn more about the materials and other stud specifications we offer, or to learn about the stud welding tools, welding guns, accessories, and other stud welding supplies Northland Fastening Systems provides, contact us at (651) 730-7770. You can also request a quote online to get started working with us today.