Types of Ferrules and Their Applications with Drawn Arc Welding

As a broad category of manufacturing operations, stud welding has many applications. Even within the stud welding classification, there are various kinds of operations with specific applications and capabilities. Capacitor discharge stud welding, for example, is a rapid, lightweight weld best for studs with diameters under 3/8”. However, CD welding is extremely useful for quick, clean, and strong welds of smaller studs for a greater range of materials than other types of stud welding. Drawn arc welding, on the other hand, uses larger diameter studs for heavy industrial purposes and composite construction. No matter what kind of studs and applications you work with, Northland Fastening Systems has the tools, studs, accessories, and any other supplies you need. We also provide tool repair and maintenance for most models, and our own stud welding technicians offer expert advice for any project.

Drawn Arc Welding

If you’re working with drawn arc welding operations, you’re likely using ceramic ferrules. Ferrules are attached around the tip of the stud and control the flow of molten metal as the weld is performed. When a successful weld is completed, ferrules are quickly and cleanly removed with a hammer.

Ferrules

These ferrules are critical components of drawn arc stud fastening systems. Some common types of ferrules include:

  • Flat ferrule: These ferrules are some of the most commonly used standard ferrule types. They are used when welding to a horizontal, flat surface such as sheet metal and beams. Standard flat ferrules come in a range of diameters, thread specifications, profiles, and fillets.
  • Vertical ferrule: Vertical ferrules are another standard ferrule type with specifications that are similar to flat ferrules. The main difference is that these are used when welding on a vertical surface. A vertical ferrule has a ring of half-teeth and half-solid ceramics to prevent molten metal from spilling through the teeth on the bottom while the weld is being performed.
  • Inside angle ferrule: Angled ferrules are used to install studs at varying angles, determined by the ferrule shape. Standard inside angle ferrules are typically used to install studs at a 90º angle.
  • Outside angle ferrule: These ferrules are used to contain molten metal and install studs on the opposite side of inside angle ferrules.
  • Side angle ferrule: Like inside angle ferrules, side angle ferrules are used to install studs at specific degrees. Side angles are almost always used to install studs at 45º.
  • Thru-hole decking ferrule: Studs that will be installed through decking to a steel beam use thru-hole decking ferrules with teeth wider than most standard ferrules. The wider space between ferrule teeth allows for more shielding gas and atmospheric exposure to create a hotter weld.
  • Specialty ferrules: There are many types of specialty ferrules, from aluminum welding ferrules to hydraulic port ferrules. A variety of more frequently-used specialty ferrules include radius, reduced base, thru-bore, rectangular, and square ferrules.

To learn more about ferrules and drawn arc welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online to get started with us today.

Commercial and Industrial Projects Built with Drawn Arc Welding

Northland Fastening Systems supplies a complete range of products for stud welding manufacturers working at all sizes for drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), and short cycle operations. Not only do we offer tools for rent or purchase, studs in all dimensions, and welding accessories; we also provide repair services for most models and the advice of our expert technicians. NFS was founded in 1987 and started providing stud welding supplies to the industrial and commercial construction industries. While the majority of the market for our supplies in the 1980s to the early 2000s was dedicated to the construction industry, today it’s a little different. After the major construction work in Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Rochester that built up the cities into the 2000s was completed, the industrial market had room to grow. Today, about 80% of our supply chain goes to the industrial market, while the remaining 20% goes to commercial construction. For both the industrial industry and the commercial construction market, there are many applications of stud welding. In particular, drawn arc welding for shear connectors, bar anchors, threaded studs, and many other formats are utilized heavily throughout industrial and building construction.

Drawn Arc Welding

Some industrial and commercial projects made with drawn arc welding include the following.

Industrial Projects

  • Ladders and railings: For many purposes, secure ladders and railings made with structural steel are critical for industrial settings. Scaffolding, catwalks, safety bars, and egress ladders all serve significant roles in manufacturing. In addition to ladders and railings, structural steel welding is also used for beams of all shapes and sizes.
  • Chutes: Whether they are made for ducting, ventilation, turbines, or material transfer, chutes are often built with stud welding operations. Stud welding chutes are also critical in hydroelectric energy production.
  • Pipe shoes: Our plumbing, irrigation, oil, and power infrastructure is made possible with hundreds of underground and aboveground pipelines. These pipes need to be installed on top of thousands of pipe shoes that run along the length of the systems. Pipe shoes are built with stud welding fastening systems.
  • Modular fabrication: Many buildings and other structures are made with modular fabrications. Beam structures built into sectional modules can be shipped and fitted together more easily than large single pieces. These beams are fastened with stud welding operations.

Commercial Projects

  • Schools and universities: Campus buildings and grade schools have many components built with stud welding to ensure the safety of students and meet the requirements of an educational space.
  • Churches: Many churches are incorporating structural steel design elements, including steeples, clock towers, fencing, and more.
  • Municipal buildings: Stud welding is also key in building safety systems into municipal buildings, including police and fire stations, court houses, and prisons.
  • Minneapolis Skyway System: The Minneapolis Skyway is the largest enclosed second-level bridge in the world. It’s made up of 9.5 miles of pathways installed with welding studs.

To learn more about our supplies and drawn arc welding operations, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online.

Technical Details: Drawn Arc Welding

Stud welding operations today are highly standardized manufacturing processes. They are widespread across multiple industries as fastening systems, in composite construction, for large-scale construction, food-grade fabrication, and more. If you’re manufacturing in the automotive, building construction, sheet metal fabrication, electronics, food service equipment, fabrication equipment, structural steel, or many other industries, you’ll likely use stud welding systems at some point in the production process. For any drawn arc, capacitor discharge (CD), or short cycle stud welding operations, Northland Fastening Systems has the tools for rent or purchase, studs in a complete range of dimensions, welding accessories, and other supplies welders need to get the job done. For drawn arc welding, NFS provides supplies meeting all technical requirements and weld specifications necessary for a variety of applications.

Drawn Arc Welding

Drawn arc processes are a type of resistance welding, and for stud welding operations, they often utilize ceramic ferrules, fluxes, and shielding gas. From stud specifications to tensile load strengths, some standard drawn arc welding technical details include:

Studs:

Drawn arc studs can be threaded or unthreaded, including various kinds of internal and external threads. Stud lengths are indicated as L in terms of BW (before weld) and AW (after weld). AW lengths will be shorter to various degrees depending on stud dimensions. Dimensions range depending on the type of stud, including threaded connectors, bar anchors, shear connectors, and headed anchors.

Ferrules:

Ceramic ferrules are used to contain molten stud and surface materials at the point of the weld vary in dimensions. The ferrules you pair with your studs should match sizing and meet ISO ferrule standards. A ferrule should be able to be cracked off and removed from the weld point when it has cooled.

Materials:

Drawn arc stud welding materials are generally grades of low carbon steel and stainless-steel meeting AWS and ASTM Some studs are plated in zinc, nickel, or copper. Drawn arc studs can also be annealed to Rockwell B Hardness of 75-85.

Shielding gas and flux:

Semi-inert gases like argon, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen in various compositions protect the weld point from exposure to oxygen and water vapor that can contaminate the weld. Fluxes can also be used to generate carbon dioxide shielding gas and regulate melt temperatures.

Tensile and torque strengths:

Standard arc weld stud tensile load and torque strength ranges are based on stud diameter, threads per inch, mean effective thread area (META), tensile load pounds, tensile stress in pounds per square inch, and torque in inch pounds. In practical applications, studs shouldn’t be installed at their maximum yield load. Instead, a safety range of no more than 60% of a yield strength should be utilized.

Accessories:

In addition to flux, ferrules, and shielding gas, drawn arc accessories include adjustable chucks, cable connectors, headed chucks, ferrule foot plates, and cable lugs.

To learn more about the technical specifications of drawn arc welding for stud installation, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770, or request a quote online to get started with us.

All About Ceramic Ferrules for Drawn Arc Stud Welding

Northland Fastening Systems is a complete supplier of tools, studs, accessories, and operations knowledge for CD, short cycle, and drawn arc stud welding. Whether you need a stud welding tool for rent or purchase, studs in custom or standardized dimensions, or even guidance from our expert technicians, you can count on NFS.

Stud welding is an operation heavily used across industries, but each type of stud welding technique requires an understanding of how the weld is generated and what tools and accessories are necessary for a successful result. An ideal stud weld point will be much stronger than the stud itself. That result can be tested in various ways with visual, tensile, and bend diagnostics.

While weld operations that achieve the best results possible may seem generally straightforward, they still require knowledge of how the weld is generated depending on welding type, calibrations for materials used, and accessories. For drawn arc stud welding, the understanding of what, why, how, and when ceramic ferrules are used is a critical part of performing a successful weld.

What are they?

Stud welding ferrules are rings made from refractory ceramic materials. They are protective shields for many operations, including drawn arc stud welding. They are also sometimes called ceramic arc shields, and they are made in a variety of shapes, sizes, and ceramic material specifications.

Why use them?

As a protective shield, ceramic ferrules are an important part of forming a clean, strong weld with drawn arc currents. Ferrules applied at the weld point will contain the pool of molten metal formed on the stud tip and welding surface. This creates a neat connection point. Ferrules are also important because they protect the weld point from the surrounding environment, preventing porosity in the weld from exposure to air, dust, gases, and UV light.

How do I use them?

Ceramic ferrules are attached around the stud tip on the welding gun. Place the correctly sized ferrule around the gun tip/stud by following the instructions specific to your tool model. After you complete the drawn arc stud welding cycle and the connection point has cooled, chip the ceramic ferrule away from the finished weld. Ceramic ferrules can only be used one time because they are broken in the removal process.

When do I use them?

While there are some rare times when ceramic ferrules are not used in the drawn arc stud welding process, you can almost always expect them to be a requirement for a successful weld. Though ferrules are used in (almost) every drawn arc stud weld, they are not used in CD stud welding or short cycle welding operations. Instead of a ferrule, other welding operations use shielding gas to protect and contain the weld point or don’t require either a ferrule or gas due to the small weld point.

To learn more about ceramic ferrules and their use in the drawn arc stud welding process, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

Resistance-Welded vs. Arc-Welded Fastening Systems

At Northland Fastening Systems, we provide a comprehensive supply of stud welding supplies, from tools for rent or purchase to studs in a complete range of dimensions with custom sizes available. Whether you need tools, studs, and accessories for drawn arc, CD, or short cycle stud welding, NFS has the products and the expertise of our stud welding technicians to help you get the job done.

 

In the industrial world, types of stud welding are typically grouped into a manufacturing category different from other welding operations. Other common welding types, such as resistance welding, can be used as fastening systems, but stud welding is generally considered the most effective method for installing fasteners and studs. Due to its unique ability to generate a connection point stronger than the fastener itself, stud welding is usually chosen over other fastening systems when manufacturing assemblies of any size that require studs, bars, anchors, and other fasteners.

 

While stud welding is the primary choice for fastening systems on the production floor or jobsite, resistance welding can sometimes have its uses when installing various fasteners.

 

Arc-Welded Fasteners

Stud welding connection points are created using an electrical arc generating enough heat at the base of the stud/fastener to put both stud tip and surface material into a molten state. In the stud welding process, the arc creates a true fusion of the two metals. Stud welding types include drawn arc, capacitor discharge, and short cycle. Arc-welded fasteners can be installed without leaving marks on the opposite side of the base material. They can also be rapidly installed, with some automated machines performing up to 60 welds per minute. Drawn arc welding can be done on angled or curved surfaces, and CD welding can be used to install fasteners on surfaces as thin as 0.016” for steel and 0.04” for aluminum without causing warping or discoloration. Stud welded fasteners are also leak-proof and pressure-tight.

 

Resistance-Welded Fasteners

Resistance welding includes spot and projection welding. These processes are used to install permanent fasteners with internal or external threading. To achieve an effective weld, both fastener and surface must be fit for resistance welding, which lessens the range of scenarios where resistance welding would be useful as fastening systems. Parts, equipment, and transportation costs of using resistance welding for fasteners are typically much higher than those of stud welding, so the recommended production volume to justify costs is over 1,000.

 

Overall, using arc/stud welding is lower cost, faster, and more effective than resistance welding for installing fasteners. To learn more about fastening systems and our stud welding supplies and services, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770. Request a quote online to get started with us today.

Four General Properties Every Drawn Arc Stud Welding Technician Should Know

Drawn arc stud welding is one of the most important manufacturing operations in large-scale steel and composite construction. From its first key uses in shipbuilding to its common uses today in bridge construction, roadwork, automotive fabrication, and more, drawn arc stud welding has a large role to play in manufacturing industries. Because it is so important to a range of industries, stud welding technicians need to have a deep understanding of what makes a strong weld and why. If you are working with stud welding for any project, Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) has stud welding tools for rent or purchase, studs in a comprehensive range of dimensions, stud welding accessories, and the expertise of its own stud welding technicians—all to help you get the job done correctly and efficiently.

 

Drawn arc stud welding has a large range of specifications, calibrations, and additional factors to take into account. Without delving into the numbers and precision often needed to provide a strong weld connection, every technician should know the four basic properties involved:

 

  • Surface Preparation: Drawn arc stud welding can vaporize thin layers of contaminants like paint, rust, or oils, but before welding, surfaces should still be prepared correctly to ensure a strong connection. Any thick coatings must be removed as metal-to-metal contact during the weld is critical to generate an arc. If thicker coats cannot be removed, you’ll need a mechanical punch to create a metal-to-metal connection.
  • Ferrules: Drawn arc stud welding uses ceramic ferrules around the weld point. These ferrules contain molten metal during the weld to prevent splatter and shield the arc as it is generated. These ferrules also prevent air flow into the weld to control oxidation, and they protect nonmetal materials around the weld point from charring. Ferrules are chipped away from the weld point when the stud and surface material cools.
  • Shielding Gases: Inert or semi-inert shielding gases are typically made up of 100% argon or a mixture of argon and helium. These gases protect a drawn arc stud weld point from oxygen and water vapor during the weld. Shielding gases can also be generated with a flux that outputs a semi-inert gas like carbon dioxide when heated in the weld.
  • Flash: Every stud weld creates a flashing of molten metal around the connection point. This flashing can be a sign of a good or bad weld depending on its condition. In a drawn arc stud weld, flashing should be within the ferrule containment and show complete fusion around the entire stud. If you were to take a cross section of the weld, that fusion would be around the base of the stud beneath the surface as well.

 

Drawn arc stud welding is a complicated process that is used in a broad range of applications. To learn more about drawn arc stud welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems (NFS) at (651) 730-7770 or request a quote online.

The Use of Ceramic Ferrules in Drawn Arc Stud Welding

Stud welding is a widely used manufacturing operation for connecting various components, support structures, assemblies, and composite construction. While there are many applications for various types of stud welding, drawn arc stud welding in particular is used for heavy-duty construction using studs with dimensions typically larger than ¼”. Drawn arc welding studs also utilize a ceramic ferrule in the bonding process. This ferrule helps create a bond that is stronger than both the welding stud and the material being welded to. When you work with Northland Fastening Systems for all your drawn arc stud welding projects, you have access to all the high-quality studs, welding tools, and accessories you need.

 

Working with a ceramic ferrule to establish strong bonds using the drawn arc stud welding process requires specific tools and practices including a drawn arc gun and calibrated unit, drawn arc studs, ceramic ferrule sized correctly, and an adequate power source.

 

How it works: The ceramic ferrule works to surround and contain the welding stud during the weld. As the drawn arc current heats the tip of the stud and the metal becomes molten, the ring-shaped ferrule keeps the metal from spreading into a messy weld. The ceramic ferrule also protects the weld from exposure to oxygen in the air. Oxygen exposure can lead to porous or weakened welds. Additionally, the ferrule creates a protective barrier reducing UV exposure. Once the weld is complete, the ferrule is chipped away leaving a clean, perfectly formed weld.

 

Ceramic ferrules are required for drawn arc stud welding because the process is a longer weld time than other welds, the welding studs are typically thicker in diameter, and the weld will be required to hold greater weights than other welding formats.

 

Short cycle welding uses inert shielding gas instead of ceramic ferrules, and CD stud welding uses a different process entirely that doesn’t have the risk of molten metal spread. Instead, CD welding uses an exact combination of pressure and current frequency to heat the metal stud and bond it to the surface material.

 

If you’re working with drawn arc stud welding operations on your job site, Northland Fastening Systems can provide all the studs, accessories, and welding tools for rent or purchase you might need from the start of your project to the finish.

 

To learn more about drawn arc stud welding and the use of ceramic ferrules, contact Northland Fastening Systems today at (651) 730-7770, and feel free to explore our selection of drawn arc welding studs or other items online or request a quote.

General Applications of Drawn Arc and CD Stud Welding

Stud welding is one of the most versatile manufacturing operations for small to large scale construction. Though it was originally developed for use in shipbuilding of various types of vessels, it has grown in application to be used in many manufacturing industries worldwide. Its use in so many industries has helped to streamline and speed up the production process while improving the quality and long-term reliability of components and full assemblies.

 

If you are using stud welding in your fabrication processes, Northland Fastening Systems is your one-stop-shop for all the tools, studs, and accessories you need to get the job done. Our team of experts can guide you through the process of selecting the right specifications of studs, welding units, and any other items needed.

 

Because stud welding is such a versatile operation providing a connection point between two metals that is stronger than the metals themselves, it is used in an increasingly wide range of applications. Broadly speaking, these applications include the following:

 

  • Structural Construction: This includes buildings, bridges, water towers, elevators, mining structures, tunnels, overpasses, facades, highways, window frames, doors, and much more.
  • Automotive Construction: Stud welding is used extensively in the construction of all types of vehicles including passenger cars, trucks, SUVs, recreational vehicles, transport vehicles, fork trucks, military vehicles, motorcycles, aircraft, farm machinery, trains, cable cars, excavation vehicles, and much more.
  • Shipbuilding: Many components of ships of all types are fabricated using stud welding. This includes flooring, ceilings, walkways, kitchens, exterior hulling, lifeboats, insulation, food prep stations, and more.
  • Sheet Metal Construction: Various cabinets, enclosures, and other sheet metal products are made using stud welding for clean connection points with no reverse side marking. This includes electrical enclosures, signs, deposit boxes, mail containers, hinges, hand tools, grills, office products, and more.
  • Appliance Construction: Domestic and commercial appliances are also made using stud welding operations. This includes ovens, stoves, refrigerators, ranges, dishwashers, dryers, stereos, financial processors, vending machines, freezers, ice machines, cookware, and much more.
  • Climate Control System Construction: Components of quality HVAC and other climate control systems are also fabricated using stud welding including ducts, vents, dehumidifiers, fans, insulation, and more.
  • Sound-Proofing Construction: The construction of soundproof rooms and systems with stud welding are key to a wide range of applications. This includes recording booths, equipment testing rooms, ducting, building facades, roads, and more.
  • Power Generator Construction: Any type of energy generator needs a specialized system to isolate and transmit that power. Stud welding is key in the fabrication of transformers, reactors, boilers, nuclear systems, steam generators, coal systems, refractories, incinerators, and more.

 

Stud welding is also useful in the installation of insulation against heat, cold, fire, weather, and other harsh elements for a wide range of structures and objects.

 

To learn more about the applications of stud welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today. To get started on your next project, request a quote online or give us a call.

Determining Weld Strength for Drawn Arc Stud Welding

Many forms of welding have been used for centuries to build strong, long-lasting parts and countless buildings and other structures. Included in these forms of welding are the various types of stud welding, all of which provide one of the strongest connection points of any weld type. In fact, both capacitor discharge (CD) and drawn arc stud welding form a bond that is stronger than either the weld stud or the base material.

 

Because of the strength of these connections, stud welding is an operation that is key to many manufacturing industries. No matter what industry you work in, Northland Fastening Systems has the tools, supplies, and services you need for both drawn arc stud welding and CD stud welding.

 

We are committed to providing a comprehensive range of welding studs in multiple standard dimensions as well as custom made-to-order studs. In addition, we offer welding tools for rent and purchase and our own expert services.

 

When it comes to drawn arc stud welding in particular, determining the required stud specifications is critical for a strong, lasting weld that can hold the weight or other stresses it will bear. Typically, drawn arc stud weld points are used in heavier construction projects and require precise performance in the field. This performance depends on the strength of the weld point, which in turn depends on weld fusion and weld penetration.

 

Weld Fusion

Simply put, weld fusion is the point where the metal of the stud connects to the metal of the surface. This fusion is a chemical connection generated by the heat of the welding arc rendering both stud and surface metal and joining those points with an atomic bonding process. In order to have a strong, reliable weld point, the spread of the fusion must be as far up the stud, as deep into the surface, and wide enough in diameter to create the necessary connection.

 

Generating the correct level of fusion without using unneeded energy or compromising the stud requires a highly specific combination of time, power, and force. For the majority of drawn arc stud welding operations, these combinations are predetermined by industry engineers specializing in stud welding physics. These specifications can be applied to different welding projects within a varying range that gives the welder the information needed to apply the correct level of weld fusion and create a strong weld connection.

 

NFS welding technicians can help you determine the specifications you need to apply precise, high-quality drawn arc stud welding operations to your project. To learn more about weld connection points, our stud welding services, and the welding studs we provide, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today or request a quote online. Learn more about welding fusion here.

Drawn Arc Stud Welding Highlights from Start to Finish

Drawn arc welding is a complex process made simple with today’s technology. Though welding has been around for centuries, beginning with the oldest forge welding to today’s capacitor discharge welding, it hadn’t begun development into the highly advanced process contemporary welders use until the late 1970s. Thanks to the advancement of welding techniques since then, we are able to utilize both drawn arc and capacitor discharge processes to perform stud welding operations. If you are working on a CD or drawn arc stud welding project, Northland Fastening Systems has everything you need from tools for rent and sale, studs of all shapes and sizes, stud welding accessories, and our own welding services.

 

When it comes to the traditional format of drawn arc stud welding, there are several stages of the procedure to take into consideration. First, the welding operation itself, which follows a simple step-by-step process:

 

  1. The welding gun is set onto the base material at the desired weld point and the operator compresses the main spring partially.
  2. The trigger is then compressed, and the stud is lifted magnetically from the base material to create an arc.
  3. The arc melts the stud tip and the base material while a ceramic ferrule shield concentrates the heat, containing it to one weld point.
  4. The stud is then compressed into the base material, melding the two molten metal components.
  5. The welding gun releases the stud, the ferrule is broken, and the welding process is complete.

 

A drawn arc stud welding process creates a bond that is stronger than the stud itself. As welding processes go, drawn arc welding is one of the most effective, fastest, and strongest operations for stud welding manufacturing. For even more effective, accurate drawn arc stud welding, templating is a highly useful procedure.

 

Templates improve the accuracy of a welding operation that uses a ceramic ferrule to contain the heat during the arc. Steel plates hold the ferrule in place, while spacers allow the gasses from the weld to escape through gaps underneath the template plates. Additional template options may allow tube templates with ventilation holes to hold the ferrule, or brushing templating can be applied.

 

Brushing templates allow for angled alignment of the stud in addition to an exact location. These templates use a tube adapter to sheath the stud and tilt it to the desired angle. The tube adapter is connected on one end to a foot component that can be attached to the welding gun and on the other to the ferrule. Template brushing components made from masonite or ebonite are stationed between the template and the tube adaptor. These components protect your template’s longevity and improve the accuracy of the weld. Virtually all drawn arc welding operations benefit from the use of a template.

 

To learn more about drawn arc stud welding and our additional services for stud welding, contact Northland Fastening Systems at (651) 730-7770 today.